Most surface currents are caused by the wind; this can include input from the Coriolis force, general wind patterns, and also landforms above sea level and on the sea floor. Deepwater currents are formed when surface winds drive currents along with upwelling and landforms. Also, another current source: density changes caused by differences in salinity and/or temperature. This is what drives most upwelling currents in the sea, caused by convection (driven by geothermal heat from the Earth's core).
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