Anatomy & Physiology B/C

User avatar
Fluorine
Member
Member
Posts: 126
Joined: March 29th, 2015, 2:29 pm
Division: Grad
State: FL
Location: Learning to live w/o SO

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby Fluorine » May 8th, 2016, 4:35 pm

alexamezaga1 wrote:I have a question about classes of muscle fibers: I have seen both type IIb and type IIx muscle fibers from different sources, but no sources include both. Are these just different names for the same thing?


Pretty sure they are the same thing. The muscles fibers types are as I know:

Slow Oxidative Fibers (SO) Type I
Fast Oxidative-Glycolytic fibers (FOG) Type IIa
Fast Glycolytic Fibers (FG) Type IIb
Alumni of FAUHS SO | Logistics Direcotor @ Cornell Scioly

Past Events
Wind Power, Anatomy, Invasive Species, Materials Science, Optics, Entomology,
Cell Biology, Fossils, Experimental Design, Protein Modeling

Terbin73
Member
Member
Posts: 15
Joined: December 1st, 2015, 4:39 pm
Division: B
State: GA
Contact:

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby Terbin73 » May 9th, 2016, 3:19 pm

alexamezaga1 wrote:I have a question about classes of muscle fibers: I have seen both type IIb and type IIx muscle fibers from different sources, but no sources include both. Are these just different names for the same thing?


Yes, they are both the same type of muscle fibers. (fast-twitch)

User avatar
Unome
Moderator
Moderator
Posts: 4044
Joined: January 26th, 2014, 12:48 pm
Division: Grad
State: GA
Location: somewhere in the sciolyverse

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby Unome » May 9th, 2016, 4:58 pm

Terbin73 wrote:
alexamezaga1 wrote:I have a question about classes of muscle fibers: I have seen both type IIb and type IIx muscle fibers from different sources, but no sources include both. Are these just different names for the same thing?


Yes, they are both the same type of muscle fibers. (fast-twitch)

Based on my (1 minute-long, admittedly) research, they are different (I found a source discussing the effects of the ratio between the two types).
Userpage
Chattahoochee High School Class of 2018
Georgia Tech Class of 2022

Opinions expressed on this site are not official; the only place for official rules changes and FAQs is soinc.org.

Terbin73
Member
Member
Posts: 15
Joined: December 1st, 2015, 4:39 pm
Division: B
State: GA
Contact:

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby Terbin73 » May 9th, 2016, 6:04 pm

Unome wrote:
Terbin73 wrote:
alexamezaga1 wrote:I have a question about classes of muscle fibers: I have seen both type IIb and type IIx muscle fibers from different sources, but no sources include both. Are these just different names for the same thing?


Yes, they are both the same type of muscle fibers. (fast-twitch)

Based on my (1 minute-long, admittedly) research, they are different (I found a source discussing the effects of the ratio between the two types).

Really? On http://greatist.com/fitness/what-are-fa ... ch-muscles, they are both referred to as the same thing.
This quote - "Fast-twitch muscles break down into two categories: moderate fast-twitch (type IIa) and fast-twitch (type IIb or IIx)." explains it. :idea:
Here is another quote from http://athletics.wikia.com/wiki/Type_II_Muscle_Fiber. "Type IIb fast-twitch fibers, or fast glycolytic fibres (also known as Type IIx), are recruited for very short-duration high-intensity bursts of power such as maximal and near-maximal lifts and short sprints.
Could you please link me to the article that you found :?:

User avatar
Fluorine
Member
Member
Posts: 126
Joined: March 29th, 2015, 2:29 pm
Division: Grad
State: FL
Location: Learning to live w/o SO

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby Fluorine » May 9th, 2016, 7:04 pm

Terbin73 wrote:
Unome wrote:
Terbin73 wrote:
Yes, they are both the same type of muscle fibers. (fast-twitch)

Based on my (1 minute-long, admittedly) research, they are different (I found a source discussing the effects of the ratio between the two types).

Really? On http://greatist.com/fitness/what-are-fa ... ch-muscles, they are both referred to as the same thing.
This quote - "Fast-twitch muscles break down into two categories: moderate fast-twitch (type IIa) and fast-twitch (type IIb or IIx)." explains it. :idea:
Here is another quote from http://athletics.wikia.com/wiki/Type_II_Muscle_Fiber. "Type IIb fast-twitch fibers, or fast glycolytic fibres (also known as Type IIx), are recruited for very short-duration high-intensity bursts of power such as maximal and near-maximal lifts and short sprints.
Could you please link me to the article that you found :?:


Now you have me curious too Unome. Most sources I have read will distinguish at most 3 muscle fiber types. Sooooo are you saying there are four muscle fiber types?
Alumni of FAUHS SO | Logistics Direcotor @ Cornell Scioly

Past Events
Wind Power, Anatomy, Invasive Species, Materials Science, Optics, Entomology,
Cell Biology, Fossils, Experimental Design, Protein Modeling

Uber
Member
Member
Posts: 58
Joined: October 1st, 2015, 4:33 pm
Division: C
State: TX

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby Uber » May 9th, 2016, 8:18 pm

Mystery solved.
https://books.google.com/books?id=BC9Si ... le&f=false
Type IID/X was isolated in rat diaphragm, and its homolog in humans is type IIB. So some people adopted type IIX to be politically correct. So it's different in rats but the same in humans.
Harvard '22
Liberal Arts and Science Academy '18

sciolyFTW_aku
Member
Member
Posts: 135
Joined: June 10th, 2015, 11:48 am
Division: C
State: MO

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby sciolyFTW_aku » May 9th, 2016, 8:44 pm

Uber wrote:Mystery solved.
https://books.google.com/books?id=BC9Si ... le&f=false
Type IID/X was isolated in rat diaphragm, and its homolog in humans is type IIB. So some people adopted type IIX to be politically correct. So it's different in rats but the same in humans.


Good job, Uber :D
B-)

User avatar
Fluorine
Member
Member
Posts: 126
Joined: March 29th, 2015, 2:29 pm
Division: Grad
State: FL
Location: Learning to live w/o SO

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby Fluorine » May 9th, 2016, 8:54 pm

sciolyFTW_aku wrote:
Uber wrote:Mystery solved.
https://books.google.com/books?id=BC9Si ... le&f=false
Type IID/X was isolated in rat diaphragm, and its homolog in humans is type IIB. So some people adopted type IIX to be politically correct. So it's different in rats but the same in humans.


Good job, Uber :D


ahaha the case of the Muscle Fiber Type IIx has been solved!!!!
Alumni of FAUHS SO | Logistics Direcotor @ Cornell Scioly

Past Events
Wind Power, Anatomy, Invasive Species, Materials Science, Optics, Entomology,
Cell Biology, Fossils, Experimental Design, Protein Modeling

Terbin73
Member
Member
Posts: 15
Joined: December 1st, 2015, 4:39 pm
Division: B
State: GA
Contact:

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby Terbin73 » May 10th, 2016, 3:43 pm

Fluorine wrote:
sciolyFTW_aku wrote:
Uber wrote:Mystery solved.
https://books.google.com/books?id=BC9Si ... le&f=false
Type IID/X was isolated in rat diaphragm, and its homolog in humans is type IIB. So some people adopted type IIX to be politically correct. So it's different in rats but the same in humans.


Good job, Uber :D


ahaha the case of the Muscle Fiber Type IIx has been solved!!!!

Aha! Now I understand. I guess both of us were right :mrgreen:

batteryPack
Member
Member
Posts: 4
Joined: December 2nd, 2015, 2:53 pm
Division: Grad
State: -

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby batteryPack » May 16th, 2016, 10:46 am

Does anyone have a good source for different muscle groups and their included muscles? For example the quadriceps (It's the only group I've been able to find)

User avatar
bhavjain
Member
Member
Posts: 153
Joined: February 20th, 2015, 7:30 pm
Division: C
State: PA

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby bhavjain » May 16th, 2016, 1:11 pm

batteryPack wrote:Does anyone have a good source for different muscle groups and their included muscles? For example the quadriceps (It's the only group I've been able to find)

Quick search on Google got me:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_m ... human_body
http://study.com/academy/lesson/major-m ... -body.html
http://weight-lifting-complete.com/major-muscle-groups/
2017 Science Olympiad - (Invites TBD/Reg/State/Nats) - Division C

Anatomy: (-/-/-/-)
Astronomy: (-/-/-/-)
Disease Detectives: (-/-/-/-)
Ecology: (-/-/-/-)
Microbe Mission: (-/-/-/-)
Remote Sensing: (-/-/-/-)
Rocks & Minerals: (-/-/-/-)
Towers: (-/-/-/-)

log10[infinity]
Member
Member
Posts: 3
Joined: April 24th, 2016, 5:07 pm
Division: B
State: PA

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby log10[infinity] » May 17th, 2016, 7:40 pm

I believe the 11 major groups are the quadriceps (as you already mentioned), hamstrings, calves, chest, back, shoulders, triceps, biceps, forearms, trapezius, and abs.

User avatar
mangothecat
Member
Member
Posts: 41
Joined: August 3rd, 2015, 9:16 pm
Division: B
State: CA

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby mangothecat » May 29th, 2016, 9:40 pm

When are the event forums usually updated with next year's events?
I apologize for being really impatient here, but I have a question regarding a question for anyone who has studied the nervous system before from this test: http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0 ... uiz_2.html

12. If there is an increase in extracellular K+ ion concentration, the result is
A) depolarization of the plasma membrane.
-B) hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane.
C) little, if any, change in the resting membrane potential of the plasma membrane.

According to this site, the answer was A because "Depolarization of the plasma membrane occurs if there is an increase in the extracellular K+ ion concentration. Hyperpolarization would occur if the extracellular K+ ion concentration decreased, not increased."
I chose B because when the extracellular K+ ion concentration increases, the inside of the plasma membrane becomes more negative relative to the outside of the plasma membrane, causing hyperpolarization. Hyperpolarization occurs when the membrane potential becomes more negative. I assumed that the K+ ion concentration inside the cell stayed the same, and the concentrations of other ions also stayed the same. Where have I gone wrong?
I understand that sometimes there are inaccuracies in online tests, but the large majority of the time, I was the one who misinterpreted the question or mixed up the facts.
Thanks in advance!
“Cats can work out mathematically the exact place to sit that will cause most inconvenience.” ~Pam Brown
2016: Churchill, Mira Loma, Mesa/Wilson, Wicklund, Regs, States
Anat&Physio: 2/3/1/1/1/
Disease Detectives: 1/1/2/1/1/
Microbe Mission: 1/4/2/2/2/

User avatar
Unome
Moderator
Moderator
Posts: 4044
Joined: January 26th, 2014, 12:48 pm
Division: Grad
State: GA
Location: somewhere in the sciolyverse

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby Unome » May 30th, 2016, 10:05 am

mangothecat wrote:When are the event forums usually updated with next year's events?

Forum updates generally occur in late August. In previous years (thinking of 2010-2012 especially) there were occasionally preliminary threads for new events, and topic changes were usually discussed on the same thread as the previous year.
Userpage
Chattahoochee High School Class of 2018
Georgia Tech Class of 2022

Opinions expressed on this site are not official; the only place for official rules changes and FAQs is soinc.org.

Uber
Member
Member
Posts: 58
Joined: October 1st, 2015, 4:33 pm
Division: C
State: TX

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby Uber » May 30th, 2016, 11:27 am

mangothecat wrote:
According to this site, the answer was A because "Depolarization of the plasma membrane occurs if there is an increase in the extracellular K+ ion concentration. Hyperpolarization would occur if the extracellular K+ ion concentration decreased, not increased."
I chose B because when the extracellular K+ ion concentration increases, the inside of the plasma membrane becomes more negative relative to the outside of the plasma membrane, causing hyperpolarization. Hyperpolarization occurs when the membrane potential becomes more negative. I assumed that the K+ ion concentration inside the cell stayed the same, and the concentrations of other ions also stayed the same. Where have I gone wrong?

Not very familiar with nervous yet, but I'm pretty sure that's where. The cell membrane is apparently fairly permeable to K+. Intracellular K+ will want to diffuse down its gradient, but it's also being attracted by intracellular anions, so the equilibrium is established: At RMP, there is 40x more K+ inside the cell than outside. Add extracellular K+ and reconsider the equilibrium. The anions stay the same, but there is less of a gradient, so K+ will want to diffuse less, and an intracellular buildup will occur. Therefore, K+ doesn't stay the same. So more positive inside means more positive voltage, meaning depolarization.
I know there's a detail or two somewhere that is wrong :/
Harvard '22
Liberal Arts and Science Academy '18


Return to “2016 Study Events”

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest