Disease Detectives B/C

Test your knowledge of various Science Olympiad events.
yang573
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Re: Disease Detectives B/C

Postby yang573 » May 1st, 2016, 8:08 am

Thanks! My sources may not have been the most reliable though...

Which nation has experienced severe arsenic contamination in its groundwater in the past few decades?
So much to do, so little time.

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dcrxcode
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Re: Disease Detectives B/C

Postby dcrxcode » May 1st, 2016, 8:27 am

Thanks! My sources may not have been the most reliable though...

Which nation has experienced severe arsenic contamination in its groundwater in the past few decades?
Bangladesh?

yang573
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Re: Disease Detectives B/C

Postby yang573 » May 1st, 2016, 9:43 am

Thanks! My sources may not have been the most reliable though...

Which nation has experienced severe arsenic contamination in its groundwater in the past few decades?
Bangladesh?
Yep. Drilling deep wells helped prevent the spread of waterborne diseases, but led to widespread arsenic poisoning.
So much to do, so little time.

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dcrxcode
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Re: Disease Detectives B/C

Postby dcrxcode » May 1st, 2016, 2:21 pm

Question: The similar symptoms between Zika Virus and Dengue Fever make diagnosis difficult.

a. What are the two types of lab tests used by doctors to distinguish between the disease?
b. One of the tests from part A has extremely high rates of false positives. Which test is it and why would it be this test?
c. Would this be a type I or II error?

cemsc10
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Re: Disease Detectives B/C

Postby cemsc10 » May 1st, 2016, 6:20 pm

Question: The similar symptoms between Zika Virus and Dengue Fever make diagnosis difficult.

a. What are the two types of lab tests used by doctors to distinguish between the disease?
b. One of the tests from part A has extremely high rates of false positives. Which test is it and why would it be this test?
c. Would this be a type I or II error?
A. Serological identification of antibodies that bind Zika virus, and positive PCR reaction using Zika specific primer
B. It's the the serological test since it cross-reacts for both Dengue and Zika, since the two are so similar many of the same antigens are produced, resulting in cross-reactive antibodies.
C. Type I
PS: Do posts in Question Marathons not count towards your post count?...
Last edited by cemsc10 on May 2nd, 2016, 3:46 pm, edited 1 time in total.
An disease detective who happens to experiment with meteorology when she is sick of testing her scrambler.

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dcrxcode
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Re: Disease Detectives B/C

Postby dcrxcode » May 1st, 2016, 6:57 pm

Question: The similar symptoms between Zika Virus and Dengue Fever make diagnosis difficult.

a. What are the two types of lab tests used by doctors to distinguish between the disease?
b. One of the tests from part A has extremely high rates of false positives. Which test is it and why would it be this test?
c. Would this be a type I or II error?
A. Serological identification of antibodies that bind Zika virus, and positive PCR reaction using Zika specific primer
B. It's the the serological test since it cross-reacts for both Dengue and Zika, since the two are so similar many of the same antigens are produced, resulting in cross-reactive antibodies.
C. Type I
PS: Do posts in Question Marathons not count towards your post count?...
All correct! Your turn. I took this from the Solon test for this year so you might have seen it especially since you live in Ohio. I don't think posts in question marathons count towards your post count :? Also, don't forget to hide next time.

cemsc10
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Re: Disease Detectives B/C

Postby cemsc10 » May 2nd, 2016, 3:50 pm

Yeah, actually I recognized the question right away, so technically it's the Ohio advantage I guess :lol: . I fixed the hiding :oops:

Question: Explain the Miasma theory, Germ theory, and Cell theory. Do each individually, and make sure to include the people contributing to the theories.
An disease detective who happens to experiment with meteorology when she is sick of testing her scrambler.

yang573
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Re: Disease Detectives B/C

Postby yang573 » May 3rd, 2016, 8:20 pm

Yeah, actually I recognized the question right away, so technically it's the Ohio advantage I guess :lol: . I fixed the hiding :oops:

Question: Explain the Miasma theory, Germ theory, and Cell theory. Do each individually, and make sure to include the people contributing to the theories.
-
Miasma theory was the idea that miasma, a sort of "fouled" air, caused diseases. This idea dates back to the classical era and gained almost universal acceptance during the Middle Ages. Miasma theory lasted for centuries and actually held some merit. Poor sanitation led to odorous air as well as epidemics. Swamps also bred mosquitos, which we know today are vectors of many diseases.

Germ theory began to usurp Miasma theory in the 1800's. Pasteur conducted an experiment that disproved spontaneous generation, and in doing so, simultaneously showed that microscopic organisms are present everywhere in the environment, including those that could make a person ill. He went on to discover several pathogens and created some new vaccines. Koch's work lent further credibility to germ theory. He was able to link specific pathogens to certain diseases. More importantly, he developed his four postulated that can show a causal relationship between a pathogen and a disease. Some sites also mention Lister, but he simply applied germ theory to medical procedures through the use of antiseptics.

Cell theory states that all organisms are composed of cells, which are the simplest living things. This actually came a few decades before germ theory. Schleiden was a botanist who first stated that plants are made up of cells at the most fundamental level. Schwann extended this idea to animals in general a year after Schleiden published his work.
So much to do, so little time.

cemsc10
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Re: Disease Detectives B/C

Postby cemsc10 » May 5th, 2016, 4:37 pm

Yeah, actually I recognized the question right away, so technically it's the Ohio advantage I guess :lol: . I fixed the hiding :oops:

Question: Explain the Miasma theory, Germ theory, and Cell theory. Do each individually, and make sure to include the people contributing to the theories.
-
Miasma theory was the idea that miasma, a sort of "fouled" air, caused diseases. This idea dates back to the classical era and gained almost universal acceptance during the Middle Ages. Miasma theory lasted for centuries and actually held some merit. Poor sanitation led to odorous air as well as epidemics. Swamps also bred mosquitos, which we know today are vectors of many diseases.

Germ theory began to usurp Miasma theory in the 1800's. Pasteur conducted an experiment that disproved spontaneous generation, and in doing so, simultaneously showed that microscopic organisms are present everywhere in the environment, including those that could make a person ill. He went on to discover several pathogens and created some new vaccines. Koch's work lent further credibility to germ theory. He was able to link specific pathogens to certain diseases. More importantly, he developed his four postulated that can show a causal relationship between a pathogen and a disease. Some sites also mention Lister, but he simply applied germ theory to medical procedures through the use of antiseptics.

Cell theory states that all organisms are composed of cells, which are the simplest living things. This actually came a few decades before germ theory. Schleiden was a botanist who first stated that plants are made up of cells at the most fundamental level. Schwann extended this idea to animals in general a year after Schleiden published his work.
Correct! Your turn!
An disease detective who happens to experiment with meteorology when she is sick of testing her scrambler.

yang573
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Re: Disease Detectives B/C

Postby yang573 » May 5th, 2016, 7:16 pm

This is going to be a bit different, but here's a basic analytical study.

You have been asked to investigate a possible outbreak of cholera in Yorktown. Cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio Cholerae. It can be found in contaminated water, and it infects the small intestine. The disease typically manifests itself within 2-3 days of infection, but it can take anywhere from a few hours to 5 days for symptoms to appear. Diarrhea is the most common symptom, and this can be accompanied by vomiting, rapid heart rate, loss of skin elasticity, and other effects of rapid dehydration. If left untreated, severe dehydration can cause shock and death.

Yorktown is a small community composed of 115 people. When you arrive at the scene, the typical sight of people tending their crops has been replaced by a sparse scattering of a select few in the fields. As there aren’t many households in the town, you decide to survey the entire population for cases of cholera, as well as how the residences acquire their dihydrogen oxide. There have been 73 cases of severe diarrhea cholera since December 10th. 45 of those infected reported drawing water from a communal well, while the others said they got their water from a nearby stream. Among those who had not (yet (optimistic aren’t we)) been infected, 35 reported getting their water from the stream, and the rest acquired their water from the well.
  • 1.Calculate the relative risk for each water source (please). Round to the nearest hundredth.
    2.Which water source seems to be the source of the outbreak?
    3.How might some of the case-patients have acquired cholera without drinking from the contaminated water source?
So much to do, so little time.


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