They are essentially opposites: La Nina is the "normal" condition is which trade winds weaken and upwelling occurs off the coast of South America. El Nino occurs when trade winds near the equator are exceptionally strong and warm water is pushed into South American coast (Pacific) resulting in the impedence of upwelling and damages to their fishing industryThe form of the equation of state is:
o AS + BS^3/2 CS^2
Where A, B, and C are functions of temperature (ºC) and S is salinity. The coefficients
for the combined data are:
A = 8.24493 x 10-1 – 4.0899 x 10-3 t + 7.6438 x 10-5 t2
– 8.2467 x 10-7 t3 + 5.3875 x 10-9 t4
B = -5.72466 x 10-3 + 1.0227 x 10-4 t – 1.6546 x 10-6 t2
C = 4.8314 x 10-4
Here's probably what you're looking for but I doubt you'll ever need to use this formula. Most density calculations on tests I've taken comes in the form of a T-S diagram.
Source: http://ocean.stanford.edu/courses/bomc/ ... ure_03.pdf (Page 10)
As for my question...
What are the differences between El Niño and La Niña. Make sure to also compare with "normal" conditions.