-19.3 but they could give it or have some Phillips relation thing who knowsWhat value do you guys typically use for the absolute magnitude of a type Ia supernova? -19.3 or -19.6 or something in between?
The Princeton test was definitely on the extreme end of the difficulty spectrum. It turned out both harder and longer than I intended.Note, the Nationals test is generally significantly harder than the MIT test, though not as hard as the Princeton test.
The first section (roughly 30% of the points) was trivia. Pretty much all the questions were also taken directly from Wikipedia, mainly to make the trivia somewhat reasonable (as in, not found in the middle of some obscure astrophysics paper). Basically every astronomy test is very trivia-heavy; my reasoning for this section was that, instead of the top few teams being decided by which ones got the two obscure trivia questions right, there would be a larger number of these trivia questions that top teams are not guaranteed to reduce this effect. I guess a common pitfall would have been for teams to spend too much time being stuck on the section.The Nationals test also uses obscure knowledge in application-based question, as opposed to how Princeton was more about spitting out obscure knowledge (most of which were directly from Wikipedia, so it shouldn't have been too hard if you had a laptop).
Question: why do higher-mass stars have the radiative layer outside the convective layer while low(er) mass stars are the opposite?
would probably be extended to ask:Greater mass means greater pressures and temperatures at the center of the star, creating a large temperature gradient between the core and the outer layers - this results in convection. Furthermore, the outer layers have a very low density, so energy flows through them more efficiently by radiation
So the CNO cycle and p-p chain are both opacity-dependent? (aka the temperature dependence can be written in terms of opacity?)Q. Why? lul
A. The way non-resonant reactions (quantum tunneling) works (look at the atomic masses of the limiting reaction components).
Q. What about the shell?
A. The dependence is more closely related to opacity than density (at least it's usually better to think in terms of opacity). Opacity also has temperature dependence rules, which depend on what source of opacity is dominant.
I think it's just Europium. https://arxiv.org/abs/1311.6980 this paper mentions Europium production in type 2 supernovae, so it's probably important.I notice the symbol [Eu/Fe] on the y-axis of the graph on page 15 of this document. Is "Eu" meant to be a shorthand to refer to elements heavier than iron or somethign like that? (similar to how "Fe" refers to elements other than hydrogen and helium) That seems to make sense to me since Eu is the symbol for Europium, but I can't find any info on it.
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