Anatomy & Physiology B/C

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Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby SenseiSushi » Tue Sep 06, 2016 8:40 pm

Short Event Description: This event encompasses the anatomy and physiology of selected body systems, this year limited to nervous and endocrine systems and sense organs.

Name four major endocrine glands in the body.
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby bhavjain » Tue Sep 06, 2016 11:20 pm

Sensei_Sushi wrote:Short Event Description: This event encompasses the anatomy and physiology of selected body systems, this year limited to nervous and endocrine systems and sense organs.

Name four major endocrine glands in the body.


Answer
pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, and pancreas.


Describe the steps in the synthesis of T4 and T3 in the thyroid gland.
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby bhavjain » Mon Sep 12, 2016 10:16 pm

Bump! Describe the steps in the synthesis of T4 and T3 in the thyroid gland.
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby mangothecat » Wed Sep 14, 2016 3:35 pm

ayy just took notes on this last night!
Thyroglobulin is synthesized in a follicle cell and is then transported into the follicle lumen. Iodide is actively transported into the follicle cell and then diffuses into the lumen, where it is oxidized into iodine. One iodine atom is joined with the tyrosine molecules within the thyroglobulin to make monoiodotyrosine (MIT), and two iodine atoms are joined with the tyrosine to make diiodotyrosine (DIT). Two DIT molecules are then joined to make T4, or one MIT and one DIT molecule are joined to form T3. T3 and T4, still attached to thyroglobulin, are then endocytosed into the follicle cell, where they are separated from thyroglobulin by lysosomes. T3 and T4 then diffuse into the bloodstream.
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby bhavjain » Wed Sep 14, 2016 7:09 pm

mangothecat wrote:
ayy just took notes on this last night!
Thyroglobulin is synthesized in a follicle cell and is then transported into the follicle lumen. Iodide is actively transported into the follicle cell and then diffuses into the lumen, where it is oxidized into iodine. One iodine atom is joined with the tyrosine molecules within the thyroglobulin to make monoiodotyrosine (MIT), and two iodine atoms are joined with the tyrosine to make diiodotyrosine (DIT). Two DIT molecules are then joined to make T4, or one MIT and one DIT molecule are joined to form T3. T3 and T4, still attached to thyroglobulin, are then endocytosed into the follicle cell, where they are separated from thyroglobulin by lysosomes. T3 and T4 then diffuse into the bloodstream.


Correct! Your turn.
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby richardolga » Thu Sep 15, 2016 8:00 am

Yes Right

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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby mangothecat » Fri Sep 16, 2016 4:09 am

1. Name the six types of generalized seizures and their corresponding signs and symptoms.
2. What is status epilepticus?
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby bhavjain » Sun Sep 18, 2016 3:53 am

mangothecat wrote:1. Name the six types of generalized seizures and their corresponding signs and symptoms.
2. What is status epilepticus?


Answer
1a. "Grand Mal"/Tonic-clonic seizures: loss of consciousness, muscles suddenly tense and tighten, hard to breathe, rapid muscle contractions/spasms/jerks
2a. "Petit Mal"/Absence seizures: stare with no movement, return to alertness within 20 seconds, confuse with daydreaming, may blink/chew/hand gestures, impairment of consciousness
3a. Myoclonic seizures: increase in muscle tone, sporadic jerking movements, shock-like, brief
4a. Clonic seizures: repetitive, jerking movements, rapidly alternating contractions
5a. Tonic seizures: muscle stiffness/tense, muscle tone enhanced, falls down if standing, may turn blue/stop breathing
6a. Atonic seizures: muscles go limp/sudden loss of tone, slump or crumple to ground, drop attacks/seizures, may get injured upon falling

b. Status epilepticus is an epileptic seizure > 5 minutes or more than one seizure in 5 minutes with impairment of consciousness throughout. Commonly a serious medical condition.
Does anyone know in which of the above 6 consciousness is lost? Is it only in 1a and 1b?
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby mangothecat » Sun Sep 18, 2016 5:00 am

bhavjain wrote:
mangothecat wrote:1. Name the six types of generalized seizures and their corresponding signs and symptoms.
2. What is status epilepticus?


Answer
1a. "Grand Mal"/Tonic-clonic seizures: loss of consciousness, muscles suddenly tense and tighten, hard to breathe, rapid muscle contractions/spasms/jerks
2a. "Petit Mal"/Absence seizures: stare with no movement, return to alertness within 20 seconds, confuse with daydreaming, may blink/chew/hand gestures, impairment of consciousness
3a. Myoclonic seizures: increase in muscle tone, sporadic jerking movements, shock-like, brief
4a. Clonic seizures: repetitive, jerking movements, rapidly alternating contractions
5a. Tonic seizures: muscle stiffness/tense, muscle tone enhanced, falls down if standing, may turn blue/stop breathing
6a. Atonic seizures: muscles go limp/sudden loss of tone, slump or crumple to ground, drop attacks/seizures, may get injured upon falling

b. Status epilepticus is an epileptic seizure > 5 minutes or more than one seizure in 5 minutes with impairment of consciousness throughout. Commonly a serious medical condition.
Does anyone know in which of the above 6 consciousness is lost? Is it only in 1a and 1b?

Yeeup that's correct; your turn!
bhavjain,
I believe that consciousness is usually lost in all 6 generalized seizures.
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby bhavjain » Sun Sep 18, 2016 2:43 pm

mangothecat wrote:
bhavjain wrote:
mangothecat wrote:1. Name the six types of generalized seizures and their corresponding signs and symptoms.
2. What is status epilepticus?


Answer
1a. "Grand Mal"/Tonic-clonic seizures: loss of consciousness, muscles suddenly tense and tighten, hard to breathe, rapid muscle contractions/spasms/jerks
2a. "Petit Mal"/Absence seizures: stare with no movement, return to alertness within 20 seconds, confuse with daydreaming, may blink/chew/hand gestures, impairment of consciousness
3a. Myoclonic seizures: increase in muscle tone, sporadic jerking movements, shock-like, brief
4a. Clonic seizures: repetitive, jerking movements, rapidly alternating contractions
5a. Tonic seizures: muscle stiffness/tense, muscle tone enhanced, falls down if standing, may turn blue/stop breathing
6a. Atonic seizures: muscles go limp/sudden loss of tone, slump or crumple to ground, drop attacks/seizures, may get injured upon falling

b. Status epilepticus is an epileptic seizure > 5 minutes or more than one seizure in 5 minutes with impairment of consciousness throughout. Commonly a serious medical condition.
Does anyone know in which of the above 6 consciousness is lost? Is it only in 1a and 1b?

Yeeup that's correct; your turn!
bhavjain,
I believe that consciousness is usually lost in all 6 generalized seizures.


mangothecat,
Sources? I've looked and every source seems to agree that consciousness is lost in grand mal and petit mal, but they disagree on the other 4. According to the Epilepsy Foundation, for instance, consciousness is "usually preserved" in a tonic seizure. http://www.epilepsy.com/learn/types-sei ... c-seizures


Is a virus, bacterium, or fungi responsible for conjunctivitis? Which specific virus, bacterium, or fungi is by far the most common cause?
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby mangothecat » Sun Sep 18, 2016 11:58 pm

bhavjain wrote:
mangothecat wrote:
bhavjain wrote:
Answer
1a. "Grand Mal"/Tonic-clonic seizures: loss of consciousness, muscles suddenly tense and tighten, hard to breathe, rapid muscle contractions/spasms/jerks
2a. "Petit Mal"/Absence seizures: stare with no movement, return to alertness within 20 seconds, confuse with daydreaming, may blink/chew/hand gestures, impairment of consciousness
3a. Myoclonic seizures: increase in muscle tone, sporadic jerking movements, shock-like, brief
4a. Clonic seizures: repetitive, jerking movements, rapidly alternating contractions
5a. Tonic seizures: muscle stiffness/tense, muscle tone enhanced, falls down if standing, may turn blue/stop breathing
6a. Atonic seizures: muscles go limp/sudden loss of tone, slump or crumple to ground, drop attacks/seizures, may get injured upon falling

b. Status epilepticus is an epileptic seizure > 5 minutes or more than one seizure in 5 minutes with impairment of consciousness throughout. Commonly a serious medical condition.
Does anyone know in which of the above 6 consciousness is lost? Is it only in 1a and 1b?

Yeeup that's correct; your turn!
bhavjain,
I believe that consciousness is usually lost in all 6 generalized seizures.


mangothecat,
Sources? I've looked and every source seems to agree that consciousness is lost in grand mal and petit mal, but they disagree on the other 4. According to the Epilepsy Foundation, for instance, consciousness is "usually preserved" in a tonic seizure. http://www.epilepsy.com/learn/types-sei ... c-seizures


Is a virus, bacterium, or fungi responsible for conjunctivitis? Which specific virus, bacterium, or fungi is by far the most common cause?

answer
Conjunctivitis can be caused by all three, though fungal infections are rare. The most common cause of conjunctivitis is the adenovirus (I think :? )

bhavjain,
Here's where I got that info from: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professiona ... -disorders. Looks like medical professionals disagree on many things lol
“Cats can work out mathematically the exact place to sit that will cause most inconvenience.” ~Pam Brown
2016: Churchill, Mira Loma, Mesa/Wilson, Wicklund, Regs, States
Anat&Physio: 2/3/1/1/1/
Disease Detectives: 1/1/2/1/1/
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby bhavjain » Mon Sep 19, 2016 12:17 am

mangothecat wrote:
bhavjain wrote:
mangothecat wrote:Yeeup that's correct; your turn!
bhavjain,
I believe that consciousness is usually lost in all 6 generalized seizures.


mangothecat,
Sources? I've looked and every source seems to agree that consciousness is lost in grand mal and petit mal, but they disagree on the other 4. According to the Epilepsy Foundation, for instance, consciousness is "usually preserved" in a tonic seizure. http://www.epilepsy.com/learn/types-sei ... c-seizures


Is a virus, bacterium, or fungi responsible for conjunctivitis? Which specific virus, bacterium, or fungi is by far the most common cause?

answer
Conjunctivitis can be caused by all three, though fungal infections are rare. The most common cause of conjunctivitis is the adenovirus (I think :? )

bhavjain,
Here's where I got that info from: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professiona ... -disorders. Looks like medical professionals disagree on many things lol


Correct!

mangothecat,
Even that site says that consciousness is usually not lost in tonic and myoclonic seizures...?
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby mangothecat » Mon Sep 19, 2016 3:41 am

bhavjain,
ehehehehehe sorry :oops: yeah it says that consciousness is usually not lost in myoclonic seizures. However it said that most tonic seizures occur during sleep, so they aren't conscious to begin with. (Did I skip over anything saying that consciousness is not lost in tonic seizures occuring when one is awake? ahhh sorry) http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/neurolog ... zures.html also states that consciousness is lost in tonic seizures.

1. How would damage to the optic chiasma affect one's field of vision?
2. How would damage to the right optic tract affect one's field of vision?
3. ________ sparing is a vision field phenomenon that may occur after a posterior cerebral artery stroke.
“Cats can work out mathematically the exact place to sit that will cause most inconvenience.” ~Pam Brown
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby bhavjain » Mon Sep 19, 2016 8:20 pm

mangothecat wrote:
bhavjain,
ehehehehehe sorry :oops: yeah it says that consciousness is usually not lost in myoclonic seizures. However it said that most tonic seizures occur during sleep, so they aren't conscious to begin with. (Did I skip over anything saying that consciousness is not lost in tonic seizures occuring when one is awake? ahhh sorry) http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/neurolog ... zures.html also states that consciousness is lost in tonic seizures.

1. How would damage to the optic chiasma affect one's field of vision?
2. How would damage to the right optic tract affect one's field of vision?
3. ________ sparing is a vision field phenomenon that may occur after a posterior cerebral artery stroke.


Thanks. I agree, consciousness is only preserved in myoclonic.

Answer
1. Damage to the optic chiasma would lead to bitemporal hemianopsia; the outer half of both left and right eyes loses vision.
2. Damage to the right optic tract would lead to left homonymous hemianopsia; the left half of both left an right eyes loses vision.
3. Macular sparing is a vision field phenomenon that may occur after a posterior cerebral artery stroke.
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Postby mangothecat » Tue Sep 20, 2016 1:18 am

bhavjain wrote:
mangothecat wrote:
bhavjain,
ehehehehehe sorry :oops: yeah it says that consciousness is usually not lost in myoclonic seizures. However it said that most tonic seizures occur during sleep, so they aren't conscious to begin with. (Did I skip over anything saying that consciousness is not lost in tonic seizures occuring when one is awake? ahhh sorry) http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/neurolog ... zures.html also states that consciousness is lost in tonic seizures.

1. How would damage to the optic chiasma affect one's field of vision?
2. How would damage to the right optic tract affect one's field of vision?
3. ________ sparing is a vision field phenomenon that may occur after a posterior cerebral artery stroke.


Thanks. I agree, consciousness is only preserved in myoclonic.

Answer
1. Damage to the optic chiasma would lead to bitemporal hemianopsia; the outer half of both left and right eyes loses vision.
2. Damage to the right optic tract would lead to left homonymous hemianopsia; the left half of both left an right eyes loses vision.
3. Macular sparing is a vision field phenomenon that may occur after a posterior cerebral artery stroke.

Correct; your turn!
“Cats can work out mathematically the exact place to sit that will cause most inconvenience.” ~Pam Brown
2016: Churchill, Mira Loma, Mesa/Wilson, Wicklund, Regs, States
Anat&Physio: 2/3/1/1/1/
Disease Detectives: 1/1/2/1/1/
Microbe Mission: 1/4/2/2/2/


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