Anatomy & Physiology B/C

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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Post by mangothecat » September 18th, 2016, 4:58 pm

bhavjain wrote:
mangothecat wrote:
bhavjain wrote:
1a. "Grand Mal"/Tonic-clonic seizures: loss of consciousness, muscles suddenly tense and tighten, hard to breathe, rapid muscle contractions/spasms/jerks
2a. "Petit Mal"/Absence seizures: stare with no movement, return to alertness within 20 seconds, confuse with daydreaming, may blink/chew/hand gestures, impairment of consciousness
3a. Myoclonic seizures: increase in muscle tone, sporadic jerking movements, shock-like, brief
4a. Clonic seizures: repetitive, jerking movements, rapidly alternating contractions
5a. Tonic seizures: muscle stiffness/tense, muscle tone enhanced, falls down if standing, may turn blue/stop breathing
6a. Atonic seizures: muscles go limp/sudden loss of tone, slump or crumple to ground, drop attacks/seizures, may get injured upon falling

b. Status epilepticus is an epileptic seizure > 5 minutes or more than one seizure in 5 minutes with impairment of consciousness throughout. Commonly a serious medical condition.
Does anyone know in which of the above 6 consciousness is lost? Is it only in 1a and 1b?
Yeeup that's correct; your turn!
I believe that consciousness is usually lost in all 6 generalized seizures.
Sources? I've looked and every source seems to agree that consciousness is lost in grand mal and petit mal, but they disagree on the other 4. According to the Epilepsy Foundation, for instance, consciousness is "usually preserved" in a tonic seizure. http://www.epilepsy.com/learn/types-seizures/tonic-seizures
Is a virus, bacterium, or fungi responsible for conjunctivitis? Which specific virus, bacterium, or fungi is by far the most common cause?
Conjunctivitis can be caused by all three, though fungal infections are rare. The most common cause of conjunctivitis is the adenovirus (I think  :? )
Here's where I got that info from: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/neurologic-disorders/seizure-disorders/seizure-disorders. Looks like medical professionals disagree on many things lol
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Post by bhavjain » September 18th, 2016, 5:17 pm

mangothecat wrote:
bhavjain wrote:
mangothecat wrote: Yeeup that's correct; your turn!
I believe that consciousness is usually lost in all 6 generalized seizures.
Sources? I've looked and every source seems to agree that consciousness is lost in grand mal and petit mal, but they disagree on the other 4. According to the Epilepsy Foundation, for instance, consciousness is "usually preserved" in a tonic seizure. http://www.epilepsy.com/learn/types-seizures/tonic-seizures
Is a virus, bacterium, or fungi responsible for conjunctivitis? Which specific virus, bacterium, or fungi is by far the most common cause?
Conjunctivitis can be caused by all three, though fungal infections are rare. The most common cause of conjunctivitis is the adenovirus (I think  :? )
Here's where I got that info from: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/neurologic-disorders/seizure-disorders/seizure-disorders. Looks like medical professionals disagree on many things lol
Correct!
Even that site says that consciousness is usually not lost in tonic and myoclonic seizures...?
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Post by mangothecat » September 18th, 2016, 8:41 pm

ehehehehehe sorry  :oops: yeah it says that consciousness is usually not lost in myoclonic seizures. However it said that most tonic seizures occur during sleep, so they aren't conscious to begin with. (Did I skip over anything saying that consciousness is not lost in tonic seizures occuring when one is awake? ahhh sorry) http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/neurology_neurosurgery/centers_clinics/epilepsy/seizures/types/tonic-and-clonic-seizures.html also states that consciousness is lost in tonic seizures.
1. How would damage to the optic chiasma affect one's field of vision?
2. How would damage to the right optic tract affect one's field of vision?
3. ________ sparing is a vision field phenomenon that may occur after a posterior cerebral artery stroke.
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Post by bhavjain » September 19th, 2016, 1:20 pm

mangothecat wrote:
ehehehehehe sorry  :oops: yeah it says that consciousness is usually not lost in myoclonic seizures. However it said that most tonic seizures occur during sleep, so they aren't conscious to begin with. (Did I skip over anything saying that consciousness is not lost in tonic seizures occuring when one is awake? ahhh sorry) http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/neurology_neurosurgery/centers_clinics/epilepsy/seizures/types/tonic-and-clonic-seizures.html also states that consciousness is lost in tonic seizures.
1. How would damage to the optic chiasma affect one's field of vision?
2. How would damage to the right optic tract affect one's field of vision?
3. ________ sparing is a vision field phenomenon that may occur after a posterior cerebral artery stroke.
Thanks. I agree, consciousness is only preserved in myoclonic.
1. Damage to the optic chiasma would lead to bitemporal hemianopsia; the outer half of both left and right eyes loses vision.
2. Damage to the right optic tract would lead to left homonymous hemianopsia; the left half of both left an right eyes loses vision.
3. Macular sparing is a vision field phenomenon that may occur after a posterior cerebral artery stroke.
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Post by mangothecat » September 19th, 2016, 6:18 pm

bhavjain wrote:
mangothecat wrote:
ehehehehehe sorry  :oops: yeah it says that consciousness is usually not lost in myoclonic seizures. However it said that most tonic seizures occur during sleep, so they aren't conscious to begin with. (Did I skip over anything saying that consciousness is not lost in tonic seizures occuring when one is awake? ahhh sorry) http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/neurology_neurosurgery/centers_clinics/epilepsy/seizures/types/tonic-and-clonic-seizures.html also states that consciousness is lost in tonic seizures.
1. How would damage to the optic chiasma affect one's field of vision?
2. How would damage to the right optic tract affect one's field of vision?
3. ________ sparing is a vision field phenomenon that may occur after a posterior cerebral artery stroke.
Thanks. I agree, consciousness is only preserved in myoclonic.
1. Damage to the optic chiasma would lead to bitemporal hemianopsia; the outer half of both left and right eyes loses vision.
2. Damage to the right optic tract would lead to left homonymous hemianopsia; the left half of both left an right eyes loses vision.
3. Macular sparing is a vision field phenomenon that may occur after a posterior cerebral artery stroke.
Correct; your turn!
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Post by bhavjain » September 20th, 2016, 7:53 am

1. Describe the pathway and information carried by Baum's loop. What happens if these fibers are damaged?
2. What are the functions of arginine vasotocin?
3. What is rhombencephalosynapsis characterized by?
4. What is ataxia?
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Post by mangothecat » September 22nd, 2016, 6:30 pm

bhavjain wrote:1. Describe the pathway and information carried by Baum's loop. What happens if these fibers are damaged?
2. What are the functions of arginine vasotocin?
3. What is rhombencephalosynapsis characterized by?
4. What is ataxia?
Dang these are great (but hard) questions!
1. Baum's loop consists of fibers in the optic radiation that synapse at the lateral geniculate body with fibers that transmit signals from the superior retina. Damage to Baum's loop results in the loss of an inferior quadrant of the field of vision, aka inferior quandranopia. 
4. Ataxia is the loss of muscle coordination.
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Post by bhavjain » September 22nd, 2016, 8:46 pm

mangothecat wrote:
bhavjain wrote:1. Describe the pathway and information carried by Baum's loop. What happens if these fibers are damaged?
2. What are the functions of arginine vasotocin?
3. What is rhombencephalosynapsis characterized by?
4. What is ataxia?
Dang these are great (but hard) questions!
1. Baum's loop consists of fibers in the optic radiation that synapse at the lateral geniculate body with fibers that transmit signals from the superior retina. Damage to Baum's loop results in the loss of an inferior quadrant of the field of vision, aka inferior quandranopia. 
4. Ataxia is the loss of muscle coordination.
Haha, just thought I'd give a bit of a challenge.
2. AVT is produced by the posterior pituitary gland and potentially pineal body, has biological properties like oxytocin and ADH, involved in social, sexual, and sleep behavior.
3. Rhombencephalosynapsis is a disease in which the cerebellum fails to fuse (missing vermis) resulting in ataxia.
Your turn.
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Post by mangothecat » September 24th, 2016, 1:21 pm

1. What are the pontine nuclei?
2. Which cranial nerve pairs issue from the pontine nuclei?
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Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Post by bhavjain » September 27th, 2016, 4:36 pm

mangothecat wrote:1. What are the pontine nuclei?
2. Which cranial nerve pairs issue from the pontine nuclei?
1. The pontine nuclei are neurons lying in the basilar pons. It receives input from the corticopontine fibers of the primary motor cortex, and outputs into the contralateral cerebellum through the middle cerebellar peduncle.
2. CN5, CN6, CN7, CN8.
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