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Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Posted: September 6th, 2016, 1:40 pm
by SenseiSushi
Short Event Description: This event encompasses the anatomy and physiology of selected body systems, this year limited to nervous and endocrine systems and sense organs.

Name four major endocrine glands in the body.

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Posted: September 6th, 2016, 4:20 pm
by bhavjain
Sensei_Sushi wrote:Short Event Description: This event encompasses the anatomy and physiology of selected body systems, this year limited to nervous and endocrine systems and sense organs.

Name four major endocrine glands in the body.
pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, and pancreas.
Describe the steps in the synthesis of T4 and T3 in the thyroid gland.

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Posted: September 12th, 2016, 3:16 pm
by bhavjain
Bump! Describe the steps in the synthesis of T4 and T3 in the thyroid gland.

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Posted: September 14th, 2016, 8:35 am
by mangothecat
Thyroglobulin is synthesized in a follicle cell and is then transported into the follicle lumen. Iodide is actively transported into the follicle cell and then diffuses into the lumen, where it is oxidized into iodine. One iodine atom is joined with the tyrosine molecules within the thyroglobulin to make monoiodotyrosine (MIT), and two iodine atoms are joined with the tyrosine to make diiodotyrosine (DIT). Two DIT molecules are then joined to make T4, or one MIT and one DIT molecule are joined to form T3. T3 and T4, still attached to thyroglobulin, are then endocytosed into the follicle cell, where they are separated from thyroglobulin by lysosomes. T3 and T4 then diffuse into the bloodstream.

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Posted: September 14th, 2016, 12:09 pm
by bhavjain
mangothecat wrote:
Thyroglobulin is synthesized in a follicle cell and is then transported into the follicle lumen. Iodide is actively transported into the follicle cell and then diffuses into the lumen, where it is oxidized into iodine. One iodine atom is joined with the tyrosine molecules within the thyroglobulin to make monoiodotyrosine (MIT), and two iodine atoms are joined with the tyrosine to make diiodotyrosine (DIT). Two DIT molecules are then joined to make T4, or one MIT and one DIT molecule are joined to form T3. T3 and T4, still attached to thyroglobulin, are then endocytosed into the follicle cell, where they are separated from thyroglobulin by lysosomes. T3 and T4 then diffuse into the bloodstream.
Correct! Your turn.

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Posted: September 15th, 2016, 1:00 am
by richardolga
Yes Right

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Posted: September 15th, 2016, 9:09 pm
by mangothecat
1. Name the six types of generalized seizures and their corresponding signs and symptoms.
2. What is status epilepticus?

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Posted: September 17th, 2016, 8:53 pm
by bhavjain
mangothecat wrote:1. Name the six types of generalized seizures and their corresponding signs and symptoms.
2. What is status epilepticus?
1a. "Grand Mal"/Tonic-clonic seizures: loss of consciousness, muscles suddenly tense and tighten, hard to breathe, rapid muscle contractions/spasms/jerks
2a. "Petit Mal"/Absence seizures: stare with no movement, return to alertness within 20 seconds, confuse with daydreaming, may blink/chew/hand gestures, impairment of consciousness
3a. Myoclonic seizures: increase in muscle tone, sporadic jerking movements, shock-like, brief
4a. Clonic seizures: repetitive, jerking movements, rapidly alternating contractions
5a. Tonic seizures: muscle stiffness/tense, muscle tone enhanced, falls down if standing, may turn blue/stop breathing
6a. Atonic seizures: muscles go limp/sudden loss of tone, slump or crumple to ground, drop attacks/seizures, may get injured upon falling

b. Status epilepticus is an epileptic seizure > 5 minutes or more than one seizure in 5 minutes with impairment of consciousness throughout. Commonly a serious medical condition.
Does anyone know in which of the above 6 consciousness is lost? Is it only in 1a and 1b?

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Posted: September 17th, 2016, 10:00 pm
by mangothecat
bhavjain wrote:
mangothecat wrote:1. Name the six types of generalized seizures and their corresponding signs and symptoms.
2. What is status epilepticus?
1a. "Grand Mal"/Tonic-clonic seizures: loss of consciousness, muscles suddenly tense and tighten, hard to breathe, rapid muscle contractions/spasms/jerks
2a. "Petit Mal"/Absence seizures: stare with no movement, return to alertness within 20 seconds, confuse with daydreaming, may blink/chew/hand gestures, impairment of consciousness
3a. Myoclonic seizures: increase in muscle tone, sporadic jerking movements, shock-like, brief
4a. Clonic seizures: repetitive, jerking movements, rapidly alternating contractions
5a. Tonic seizures: muscle stiffness/tense, muscle tone enhanced, falls down if standing, may turn blue/stop breathing
6a. Atonic seizures: muscles go limp/sudden loss of tone, slump or crumple to ground, drop attacks/seizures, may get injured upon falling

b. Status epilepticus is an epileptic seizure > 5 minutes or more than one seizure in 5 minutes with impairment of consciousness throughout. Commonly a serious medical condition.
Does anyone know in which of the above 6 consciousness is lost? Is it only in 1a and 1b?
Yeeup that's correct; your turn!
I believe that consciousness is usually lost in all 6 generalized seizures.

Re: Anatomy & Physiology B/C

Posted: September 18th, 2016, 7:43 am
by bhavjain
mangothecat wrote:
bhavjain wrote:
mangothecat wrote:1. Name the six types of generalized seizures and their corresponding signs and symptoms.
2. What is status epilepticus?
1a. "Grand Mal"/Tonic-clonic seizures: loss of consciousness, muscles suddenly tense and tighten, hard to breathe, rapid muscle contractions/spasms/jerks
2a. "Petit Mal"/Absence seizures: stare with no movement, return to alertness within 20 seconds, confuse with daydreaming, may blink/chew/hand gestures, impairment of consciousness
3a. Myoclonic seizures: increase in muscle tone, sporadic jerking movements, shock-like, brief
4a. Clonic seizures: repetitive, jerking movements, rapidly alternating contractions
5a. Tonic seizures: muscle stiffness/tense, muscle tone enhanced, falls down if standing, may turn blue/stop breathing
6a. Atonic seizures: muscles go limp/sudden loss of tone, slump or crumple to ground, drop attacks/seizures, may get injured upon falling

b. Status epilepticus is an epileptic seizure > 5 minutes or more than one seizure in 5 minutes with impairment of consciousness throughout. Commonly a serious medical condition.
Does anyone know in which of the above 6 consciousness is lost? Is it only in 1a and 1b?
Yeeup that's correct; your turn!
I believe that consciousness is usually lost in all 6 generalized seizures.
Sources? I've looked and every source seems to agree that consciousness is lost in grand mal and petit mal, but they disagree on the other 4. According to the Epilepsy Foundation, for instance, consciousness is "usually preserved" in a tonic seizure. http://www.epilepsy.com/learn/types-seizures/tonic-seizures
Is a virus, bacterium, or fungi responsible for conjunctivitis? Which specific virus, bacterium, or fungi is by far the most common cause?