Woah, so many posts:O. I remember having to learn DSO IDs pretty early...I think even around this time I still wouldn't get some down, but then again some objects have pretty weird images. Main thing is not to panic and make a study plan is what I say! I'll reply to some other things for fun since I can (mostly confirmations of what others say)...
Planck's Law math is a bit obnoxious and not that effective to assess whether you understand information (at least in high school). Often involves calculus too...which is not fun and not test-able for high schoolers in my book. You should be aware that Planck's Law exists, assumptions that go into it, and how it relates to blackbodies / radiation laws of blackbodies (e.g. Wien's Law), though. I think even for Remote it would be a bit obnoxious to put it on, unless people do...
As for calculus, no calculus in scioly. On the other hand, Kepler's Laws (namely the 2nd and 3rd) do involve a lot of algebra, and that can certainly be tested! For example, binary stars, conserving angular momentum, and associated graphs are all fair. I don't know if exoplanet transits are a great example of peculiarities as much as (say) how to account for inclination. In fact, a lot of what we know about transits comes from studying binary stars with Kepler's Laws anyway. There's lots of ways to take a simple circular orbit and make it complicated basically, and you should look into relations or equations for that (or if too complicated, at least be able to attempt explanations for it). This all sounds like a lot, but if you just keep an organized, up to date formula sheet that isn't overcrowded, then I think it'll be fine. The fundamentals (a^3/P^2, etc) are most important anyway.
Anddd Unome knows the answer for RR Lyrae stars, so I'll leave it at that.
Interesting questions, I like how it's on the basics as opposed to all the nitty gritty on fancy massive stars
B: Crave the Wave, Environmental Chemistry, Robo-Cross, Meteorology, Physical Science Lab, Solar System, DyPlan (E and V), Shock Value
C: Microbe Mission, DyPlan (Earth's Fresh Waters), Fermi Questions, GeoMaps, Gravity Vehicle, Scrambler, Rocks, Astronomy
Grad: Writing Tests/Supervising (NY/MI)