@above: I'm not so sure about whether the large-scale fusion reactions of the sun directly affect entropy changes involved in photosynthesis reactions, but the correct catch, as you said, was that the entropy of the universe is increasing, even though the entropy of the system appears to decrease. Again, I am unsure of the exact mechanism.
Next question: Describe the anomalous behavior of ice from 0 to 4 degrees Celsius.
At 4 degrees, water is actually at its highest density. Whether or not you add or remove heat from the water, it will still expand. Because of this, once the water is cooled to its freezing point and it is turned into ice, the ice will actually be less dense than the water around it, which is why ice floats in water and is also why the top of a lake tends to freeze first.
Next question: Consider 3 moles of a diatomic ideal gas in a piston. Suppose the piston is reversibly and isobarically compressed at a pressure of 1073 torr from 15 L to 3 L. Find the change in internal energy and the heat added/removed from the gas.