## Disease Detectives B/C

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### Re: Disease Detectives B/C

Given a 2x2 table, how would you calculate the standard deviation? (qualitative explanation, although if using numbers as an example would help you, then feel free to)
Standard deviation of what? A 2x2 table measures categorical data.

(If you mean the sampling distribution of proportions, you can calculate the std dev. of the sampling distribution with $\sqrt{\frac{p(1-p)}{n}}$ or $\sqrt{\frac{\hat{p}(1-\hat{p})}{n}}$ if a proportion is not given.)

IcsTam
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### Re: Disease Detectives B/C

Given a 2x2 table, how would you calculate the standard deviation? (qualitative explanation, although if using numbers as an example would help you, then feel free to)
Standard deviation of what? A 2x2 table measures categorical data.

(If you mean the sampling distribution of proportions, you can calculate the std dev. of the sampling distribution with $\sqrt{\frac{p(1-p)}{n}}$ or $\sqrt{\frac{\hat{p}(1-\hat{p})}{n}}$ if a proportion is not given.)
Oh shoot, I messed up the question, my bad. That's pretty much what I meant. Go for it
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### Re: Disease Detectives B/C

What are the different types of carriers?

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### Re: Disease Detectives B/C

What are the different types of carriers?
Active Carrier - A person who can transmit a disease to others but shows no signs or symptoms
Convalescent Carrier - A person who recently recovered from a disease but can still transmit the disease to others
There may be others but that's all I know.
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UTF-8 U+6211 U+662F
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### Re: Disease Detectives B/C

What are the different types of carriers?
Active Carrier - A person who can transmit a disease to others but shows no signs or symptoms
Convalescent Carrier - A person who recently recovered from a disease but can still transmit the disease to others
There may be others but that's all I know.

Tailsfan101
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### Re: Disease Detectives B/C

Match the following descriptions of Hill's Criteria to their names:
I. The condition can be altered, either prevented or accelerated
II. Observation of association must be repeatable in different populations at different times
III. Cause/exposure must precede the effect/outcome
IV. The association should be compatible with existing theory and knowledge, including knowledge of past cases and epidemiological studies
V. A single cause produces a specific effect
VI. Relationship is clear and risk estimate is high
VII. The association agrees with currently accepted understanding of
VIII. Consideration of multiple hypotheses before making a conclusion about whether an association is causal or not
IX. An increasing amount of exposure increases the risk

1. Alternative Explanations
2. Coherence
3. Temporality
4. Biological Plausibility
5. Specificity
6. Strength of Association
7. Experimental Evidence
8. Dose-Response Relationship
9. Consistency
List in order the ten steps in an epidemiological investigation.
Easy questions.
2020 Treasure Valley Homeschool Wiki (Division C)
2020 events: DD, GLM, DG, PM
Mini-Inv./DISCO/State/Nats
RS: 1/2/1/-
DD: -/3/2/-
HD: 2/4/4/-
CB: 3/6/1/-
ELG: -/6/-/-
GLM: -/-/-/31
WIDI: -/-/-/24
PTQ: -/-/-/41
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Killboe
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### Re: Disease Detectives B/C

Match the following descriptions of Hill's Criteria to their names:
I. The condition can be altered, either prevented or accelerated
II. Observation of association must be repeatable in different populations at different times
III. Cause/exposure must precede the effect/outcome
IV. The association should be compatible with existing theory and knowledge, including knowledge of past cases and epidemiological studies
V. A single cause produces a specific effect
VI. Relationship is clear and risk estimate is high
VII. The association agrees with currently accepted understanding of
VIII. Consideration of multiple hypotheses before making a conclusion about whether an association is causal or not
IX. An increasing amount of exposure increases the risk

1. Alternative Explanations
2. Coherence
3. Temporality
4. Biological Plausibility
5. Specificity
6. Strength of Association
7. Experimental Evidence
8. Dose-Response Relationship
9. Consistency
List in order the ten steps in an epidemiological investigation.
Easy questions.

I'm going to do Question 1 and 2.
1. VIII
2. IV
3. III
4. VII
5. V
6. VI
7. I
8. IX
9. II
Also, for Biological Plausibility, you forgot to add, "biological and pathological processes." btw I knew that because I have the exact definitions in my cheat sheet i swear i didnt look it up :oops:
1.Prepare team and resources
2. Establish existence of outbreak
3. Verify the diagnosis
4. Construct case defintion
5. Find cases systemically and develop line listing
6. Performing descriptive epidemiology/perform additional studies as necessary
7. Develop hypotheses
8. Implement control measures
9. Communicate findings
10. Maintain surveillance
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Tailsfan101
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### Re: Disease Detectives B/C

Match the following descriptions of Hill's Criteria to their names:
I. The condition can be altered, either prevented or accelerated
II. Observation of association must be repeatable in different populations at different times
III. Cause/exposure must precede the effect/outcome
IV. The association should be compatible with existing theory and knowledge, including knowledge of past cases and epidemiological studies
V. A single cause produces a specific effect
VI. Relationship is clear and risk estimate is high
VII. The association agrees with currently accepted understanding of
VIII. Consideration of multiple hypotheses before making a conclusion about whether an association is causal or not
IX. An increasing amount of exposure increases the risk

1. Alternative Explanations
2. Coherence
3. Temporality
4. Biological Plausibility
5. Specificity
6. Strength of Association
7. Experimental Evidence
8. Dose-Response Relationship
9. Consistency
List in order the ten steps in an epidemiological investigation.
Easy questions.

I'm going to do Question 1 and 2.
1. VIII
2. IV
3. III
4. VII
5. V
6. VI
7. I
8. IX
9. II
Also, for Biological Plausibility, you forgot to add, "biological and pathological processes." btw I knew that because I have the exact definitions in my cheat sheet i swear i didnt look it up :oops:
1.Prepare team and resources
2. Establish existence of outbreak
3. Verify the diagnosis
4. Construct case defintion
5. Find cases systemically and develop line listing
6. Performing descriptive epidemiology/perform additional studies as necessary
7. Develop hypotheses
8. Implement control measures
9. Communicate findings
10. Maintain surveillance
All are correct. Somehow I left that part off :oops:
Here's what I have on my cheat sheet:
1. Prepare for field work
2. Establish the existence of an outbreak
3. Verify diagnosis
4. Define and identify cases
5. Describe and orient the data in terms of person, place, and time
6. Develop hypotheses
7. Evaluate hypotheses
8. Refine hypotheses
9. Control and prevention measures
10. Communicate findings
Pretty similar, but I think you added a few unnecessary steps.
2020 Treasure Valley Homeschool Wiki (Division C)
2020 events: DD, GLM, DG, PM
Mini-Inv./DISCO/State/Nats
RS: 1/2/1/-
DD: -/3/2/-
HD: 2/4/4/-
CB: 3/6/1/-
ELG: -/6/-/-
GLM: -/-/-/31
WIDI: -/-/-/24
PTQ: -/-/-/41
Assassinator for games #118 and 136

UTF-8 U+6211 U+662F
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### Re: Disease Detectives B/C

List in order the ten steps in an epidemiological investigation.
1.Prepare team and resources
2. Establish existence of outbreak
3. Verify the diagnosis
4. Construct case defintion
5. Find cases systemically and develop line listing
6. Performing descriptive epidemiology/perform additional studies as necessary
7. Develop hypotheses
8. Implement control measures
9. Communicate findings
10. Maintain surveillance
Here's what I have on my cheat sheet:
1. Prepare for field work
2. Establish the existence of an outbreak
3. Verify diagnosis
4. Define and identify cases
5. Describe and orient the data in terms of person, place, and time
6. Develop hypotheses
7. Evaluate hypotheses
8. Refine hypotheses
9. Control and prevention measures
10. Communicate findings
Pretty similar, but I think you added a few unnecessary steps.
The problem with asking this question is that both answers are right (and that all the "steps" could easily be broken down into multiple steps).

Of course, Killboe's answer leaves out actually testing the hypotheses

Killboe
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### Re: Disease Detectives B/C

What is BSE caused by :P
List reasons why public health officials investigate outbreaks.
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