Microbe Mission B/C

Test your knowledge of various Science Olympiad events.
The48thYoshi
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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby The48thYoshi » December 3rd, 2017, 7:59 pm

whythelongface wrote:1. Describe the action of lysozyme on a bacterial cell.
2. How do molecules access a gram-negative bacterial cell through the layers of the membrane?
3. What is LPS, and what role does it play in the body's immune response?
4. Explain the difference between an endo- and exotoxin.
5. Name two major components of gram-positive walls, excluding peptidoglycan.
6. What two molecules is peptidoglycan composed of?
7. Why do bacteria produce antibiotics?
8. Penicillins, cephalosporins, and chloramphenicols are beta-lactam antibiotics. Describe their action.
9. What does "wide spectrum" mean in the context of antibiotics?


Answer
1. Lysozyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a linkage between two components of peptidoglycan (NAM and NAG)
2. This one I’m not too sure about. I think its through a self-promoted access pathway
3. LPS stands for Lipopolysaccharide. There is a polymer called the O antigen and is exposed in the very outer surface if the bacterial cell, and thus is a target for host antibody recognition.
4. Exotoxins are toxic substances that are secreted and released outside of a bacterial cell. Endotoxins are consisted of lipids and are located within a bacterial cell.
5. Techoic acids and proteins? Not sure about the proteins part.
6. NAM and NAG. No clue what NAM was again. NAG is N-Acetylglucosamine.
7. They give the bacteria a competitive advantage for food, water, and other limited resources by killing off the competitors.
8. They inhibit cell wall synthesis in bacterial cells.
9. It means that it can act upon a variety of diseases caused by a variety of bacteria successfully.

I had this typed out but forgot to submit it so I had to redo it :/. Hopefully it’s not all wrong :)
aeshs ‘22

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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby whythelongface » December 4th, 2017, 2:59 pm

The48thYoshi wrote:
whythelongface wrote:1. Describe the action of lysozyme on a bacterial cell.
2. How do molecules access a gram-negative bacterial cell through the layers of the membrane?
3. What is LPS, and what role does it play in the body's immune response?
4. Explain the difference between an endo- and exotoxin.
5. Name two major components of gram-positive walls, excluding peptidoglycan.
6. What two molecules is peptidoglycan composed of?
7. Why do bacteria produce antibiotics?
8. Penicillins, cephalosporins, and chloramphenicols are beta-lactam antibiotics. Describe their action.
9. What does "wide spectrum" mean in the context of antibiotics?


Answer
1. Lysozyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a linkage between two components of peptidoglycan (NAM and NAG)
2. This one I’m not too sure about. I think its through a self-promoted access pathway
3. LPS stands for Lipopolysaccharide. There is a polymer called the O antigen and is exposed in the very outer surface if the bacterial cell, and thus is a target for host antibody recognition.
4. Exotoxins are toxic substances that are secreted and released outside of a bacterial cell. Endotoxins are consisted of lipids and are located within a bacterial cell.
5. Techoic acids and proteins? Not sure about the proteins part.
6. NAM and NAG. No clue what NAM was again. NAG is N-Acetylglucosamine.
7. They give the bacteria a competitive advantage for food, water, and other limited resources by killing off the competitors.
8. They inhibit cell wall synthesis in bacterial cells.
9. It means that it can act upon a variety of diseases caused by a variety of bacteria successfully.

I had this typed out but forgot to submit it so I had to redo it :/. Hopefully it’s not all wrong :)

Essentially all correct. For 2. I was just looking for porin channels .. I actually don't remember what I wanted for 5), but I think TA is acceptable. NAM stands for n-acetylmuramic acid . I'll find #5 in my notes somewhere. Your turn!
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He went out and hanged himself and then there were none."

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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby The48thYoshi » December 4th, 2017, 4:20 pm

Explain the syntrophic model and provide 4 pieces of evidence to support it
aeshs ‘22

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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby Pettywap » January 3rd, 2018, 2:24 pm

The48thYoshi wrote:Explain the syntrophic model and provide 4 pieces of evidence to support it

Syntrophic model- relationship between the archaea and bacteria created the nucleus-containing eukaryotic cell
1. originated when ancient archaea invaded and lived within bacteria eventually forming the early nucleus

Not really sure about the other pieces of evidence or my answer in general :/
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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby whythelongface » January 3rd, 2018, 5:37 pm

Pettywap wrote:
The48thYoshi wrote:Explain the syntrophic model and provide 4 pieces of evidence to support it

Syntrophic model- relationship between the archaea and bacteria created the nucleus-containing eukaryotic cell
1. originated when ancient archaea invaded and lived within bacteria eventually forming the early nucleus

Not really sure about the other pieces of evidence or my answer in general :/

Wasn't there some sort of bacterium where they discovered infolding in the membrane similar to a primitive ER or something?
WEST WINDSOR-PLAINSBORO HIGH SCHOOL SOUTH '18
EMORY UNIVERSITY '22
SONT 2017 5th Place Medalist [Microbe Mission]

"One little Sciolyer left all alone,
He went out and hanged himself and then there were none."

Congratulations to WW-P South for winning 14th place at Nationals!

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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby The48thYoshi » January 9th, 2018, 8:00 am

whythelongface wrote:
Pettywap wrote:
The48thYoshi wrote:Explain the syntrophic model and provide 4 pieces of evidence to support it

Syntrophic model- relationship between the archaea and bacteria created the nucleus-containing eukaryotic cell
1. originated when ancient archaea invaded and lived within bacteria eventually forming the early nucleus

Not really sure about the other pieces of evidence or my answer in general :/

Wasn't there some sort of bacterium where they discovered infolding in the membrane similar to a primitive ER or something?

Sorry I haven’t been very active lately.
My answer
The syntrophic model proposes that ancient archaea similar to methanogens formed a symbiotic relationship, invading myxobacteria, forming the early nucleus. Some evidence is that archaea and eukarya have similar genes for certain proteins, including histones. In addition, myxobacteria are motile. They can also form multicellular complexes. Myxobacteria also have kinases and G proteins similar to eukarya.

Your turn
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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby Tailsfan101 » January 10th, 2018, 7:06 am

Give the scientific name and a list of symptoms for Legionnaire's Disease.
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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby themightyweeaboo » January 14th, 2018, 6:16 am

Tailsfan101 wrote:Give the scientific name and a list of symptoms for Legionnaire's Disease.


Scientific name: Legionella Pneumophila
Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea

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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby Tailsfan101 » January 14th, 2018, 8:13 am

themightyweeaboo wrote:
Tailsfan101 wrote:Give the scientific name and a list of symptoms for Legionnaire's Disease.


Scientific name: Legionella Pneumophila
Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea

What I have:
Scientific Name: Legionella Bacteria
Symptoms: chest/muscle pain, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, fever, chills, coughing, shortness of breath, headache
2019 Treasure Valley Homeschool Wiki
2018
State/Nats
CB: 1/35
RS: 1/44
DD: 2/37
MM: 3/46

2019
Mini-Inv./DISCO/State/Nats
RS: 1/2/1/-
DD: -/3/2/-
HD: 2/4/4/-
CB: 3/6/1/-
ELG: -/6/-/-
GLM: -/-/-/31
WIDI: -/-/-/24


Possible 2020 events: DD, GLM, Code, WIDI, 4N6

Assassinator for games #118 and 136

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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby themightyweeaboo » January 14th, 2018, 8:59 am

Tailsfan101 wrote:
themightyweeaboo wrote:
Tailsfan101 wrote:Give the scientific name and a list of symptoms for Legionnaire's Disease.


Scientific name: Legionella Pneumophila
Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea

What I have:
Scientific Name: Legionella Bacteria
Symptoms: chest/muscle pain, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, fever, chills, coughing, shortness of breath, headache


About that...
Hmm... I guess legionella bacteria would work, I was just being a bit specific. I should have listed more symptoms too, sorry

Anyways, another question!

1: Define sanitization, sterilization, and disinfection
2: Name the pros and cons of using each

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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby whythelongface » January 14th, 2018, 9:08 am

Tailsfan101 wrote:
themightyweeaboo wrote:
Tailsfan101 wrote:Give the scientific name and a list of symptoms for Legionnaire's Disease.


Scientific name: Legionella Pneumophila
Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea

What I have:
Scientific Name: Legionella Bacteria
Symptoms: chest/muscle pain, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, fever, chills, coughing, shortness of breath, headache

Well, you're partially wrong, because that's not the scientific name. You have the right genus, but your species name is completely off. Your list of symptoms are more comprehensive, though.

themightyweeaboo wrote:Anyways, another question!

1: Define sanitization, sterilization, and disinfection
2: Name the pros and cons of using each

Here...
1. Sanitization and disinfection both mean killing pathogens on things. The difference between that and sterilization is that sterilization renders 100% of all pathogens dead, including endospores and prions, while disinfection mainly serves to reduce the numbers of pathogens on the thing.
2. Disinfection is generally quick, easy, and cheap, and it generally does not damage tissue or instruments. An example is a povidone iodine wipe, followed by isopropanol. The downside to this is that it doesn't kill everything, and it won't even begin to kill endospores. Sterilization renders things absolutely clean, which is especially useful for things such as surgical instruments, catheters, things of that sort, but the downside is that the methods used are pretty damaging to sensitive instruments. Autoclaving, for example, basically pressure-cooks the object with steam, while other chemical methods involve dipping things into carcinogenic or highly toxic liquids/gases, like formalin, chlorine dioxide, and hydrogen peroxide.


EDIT: is it just me or has formatting been kind of weird lately?
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EMORY UNIVERSITY '22
SONT 2017 5th Place Medalist [Microbe Mission]

"One little Sciolyer left all alone,
He went out and hanged himself and then there were none."

Congratulations to WW-P South for winning 14th place at Nationals!

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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby themightyweeaboo » January 14th, 2018, 9:53 am

themightyweeaboo wrote:Anyways, another question!

1: Define sanitization, sterilization, and disinfection
2: Name the pros and cons of using each

Here...
1. Sanitization and disinfection both mean killing pathogens on things. The difference between that and sterilization is that sterilization renders 100% of all pathogens dead, including endospores and prions, while disinfection mainly serves to reduce the numbers of pathogens on the thing.
2. Disinfection is generally quick, easy, and cheap, and it generally does not damage tissue or instruments. An example is a povidone iodine wipe, followed by isopropanol. The downside to this is that it doesn't kill everything, and it won't even begin to kill endospores. Sterilization renders things absolutely clean, which is especially useful for things such as surgical instruments, catheters, things of that sort, but the downside is that the methods used are pretty damaging to sensitive instruments. Autoclaving, for example, basically pressure-cooks the object with steam, while other chemical methods involve dipping things into carcinogenic or highly toxic liquids/gases, like formalin, chlorine dioxide, and hydrogen peroxide.


EDIT: is it just me or has formatting been kind of weird lately?[/quote]

Good! But
Though similar, disinfection and sanatization are different things. Disinfection is defined as getting rid of microbes that may cause disease, while santization is reducing these to levels considered safe by public health standards

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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby themightyweeaboo » January 14th, 2018, 9:56 am

themightyweeaboo wrote:
themightyweeaboo wrote:Anyways, another question!

1: Define sanitization, sterilization, and disinfection
2: Name the pros and cons of using each

Here...
1. Sanitization and disinfection both mean killing pathogens on things. The difference between that and sterilization is that sterilization renders 100% of all pathogens dead, including endospores and prions, while disinfection mainly serves to reduce the numbers of pathogens on the thing.
2. Disinfection is generally quick, easy, and cheap, and it generally does not damage tissue or instruments. An example is a povidone iodine wipe, followed by isopropanol. The downside to this is that it doesn't kill everything, and it won't even begin to kill endospores. Sterilization renders things absolutely clean, which is especially useful for things such as surgical instruments, catheters, things of that sort, but the downside is that the methods used are pretty damaging to sensitive instruments. Autoclaving, for example, basically pressure-cooks the object with steam, while other chemical methods involve dipping things into carcinogenic or highly toxic liquids/gases, like formalin, chlorine dioxide, and hydrogen peroxide.


EDIT: is it just me or has formatting been kind of weird lately?


Good! But
Though similar, disinfection and sanatization are different things. Disinfection is defined as getting rid of microbes that may cause disease, while santization is reducing these to levels considered safe by public health standards

And, about the last question
A more lax proctor would probably accept that, but harsher and more experienced ones would probably mark that off. Still best to use the full name though!

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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby whythelongface » January 14th, 2018, 10:12 am

themightyweeaboo wrote:Good! But
Though similar, disinfection and sanatization are different things. Disinfection is defined as getting rid of microbes that may cause disease, while santization is reducing these to levels considered safe by public health standards

I challenge this
Disinfection does not always get rid of microbes that cause disease. Like sanitization, disinfection also serves primarily to reduce, not completely eliminate, pathogens.
WEST WINDSOR-PLAINSBORO HIGH SCHOOL SOUTH '18
EMORY UNIVERSITY '22
SONT 2017 5th Place Medalist [Microbe Mission]

"One little Sciolyer left all alone,
He went out and hanged himself and then there were none."

Congratulations to WW-P South for winning 14th place at Nationals!

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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby Alex-RCHS » January 14th, 2018, 10:41 am

whythelongface wrote:
Tailsfan101 wrote:
themightyweeaboo wrote:
Scientific name: Legionella Pneumophila
Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea

What I have:
Scientific Name: Legionella Bacteria
Symptoms: chest/muscle pain, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, fever, chills, coughing, shortness of breath, headache

Well, you're partially wrong, because that's not the scientific name. You have the right genus, but your species name is completely off. Your list of symptoms are more comprehensive, though.

I don't think anyone has correctly answered the scientific name yet.
In my notes, Legionnaire's is caused by multiple species of bacteria in the genus legionella, although it is usually caused by L. Pneumophila. The best answer would be to say "bacteria in the genus Legionella."
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