Microbe Mission B/C

Test your knowledge of various Science Olympiad events.
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Alex-RCHS
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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby Alex-RCHS » February 26th, 2018, 12:20 pm

I guess I’ll just post a question
Image
1. What domain is this organism from
2. What is this specific individuals effect on human life
3. What is significant about its structure/appearance

Edit: Sorry for double post :?
1. Bacteria
2. Produces antibiotics as secondary metabolites
3. They are filamentous (resemble fungi) in that they form hyphae and reproduce through spores
Sorry to divert the thread, but how did you know the answers to this? Like, what gave away all of those details? I wouldn’t even know how to approach that.
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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby allopathie » February 26th, 2018, 12:24 pm

Sorry to divert the thread, but how did you know the answers to this? Like, what gave away all of those details? I wouldn’t even know how to approach that.
ID is super important. Not so much nationals, but PA states has a ton of this stuff. Streptomyces produces more than half of human antibiotics (and the blue color is from one of the types of antibiotics they secrete), and it is the major type of filamentous bacteria (so be able recognize this type of morphology).

When you realize that the person from Troy who won Microbes last year won gold at International Biology Olympiad, you also realize that knowing everything on Wikipedia isn't enough.
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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby whythelongface » February 26th, 2018, 5:38 pm

Sorry to divert the thread, but how did you know the answers to this? Like, what gave away all of those details? I wouldn’t even know how to approach that.
ID is super important. Not so much nationals, but PA states has a ton of this stuff. Streptomyces produces more than half of human antibiotics (and the blue color is from one of the types of antibiotics they secrete), and it is the major type of filamentous bacteria (so be able recognize this type of morphology).

When you realize that the person from Troy who won Microbes last year won gold at International Biology Olympiad, you also realize that knowing everything on Wikipedia isn't enough.
1. Is that where streptomycin came from?
2. That's what Campbell, Tortorra, Alberts, and Lehninger is for
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SONT 2017 5th Place Medalist [Microbe Mission]

"One little Sciolyer left all alone,
He went out and hanged himself and then there were none."

Congratulations to WW-P South for winning 14th place at Nationals!

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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby The48thYoshi » March 1st, 2018, 4:23 pm


Q: A 60-year old male has been HIV positive for more than 5 years. The HIV strains from his blood have a significant increase in pol gene mutations over the past year. He has been on the same course of antiretroviral therapy over this 5 year period. What is a possible cause of this finding?
You’ve effectively killed the thread :P . Maybe some help?
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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby Alex-RCHS » March 1st, 2018, 4:50 pm


Q: A 60-year old male has been HIV positive for more than 5 years. The HIV strains from his blood have a significant increase in pol gene mutations over the past year. He has been on the same course of antiretroviral therapy over this 5 year period. What is a possible cause of this finding?
You’ve effectively killed the thread :P . Maybe some help?
Agreed. I’ll take a (bad) guess:
The virus has gained resistance to the ART via the natural selection of a beneficial mutation.
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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby allopathie » March 1st, 2018, 7:58 pm

The virus has gained resistance to the ART via the natural selection of a beneficial mutation.
Correct; specifically, pol encodes reverse transcriptase so you would be looking at antiretroviral drugs that specifically target RT.
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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby Alex-RCHS » March 1st, 2018, 8:44 pm

The virus has gained resistance to the ART via the natural selection of a beneficial mutation.
Correct; specifically, pol encodes reverse transcriptase so you would be looking at antiretroviral drugs that specifically target RT.
Wow, that was a complete guess.

Okay, here's the next question (whew, this ended up being a long one. Sorry, but I hope you guys enjoy it!)

Image A: Image
Image A is of Myrionecta rubra.

Image B: Image
Image B is of an unspecified heliozoan, that uses different means of locomotion from Myrionecta rubra.
1a. What is the name of the cell part that Myrionecta rubra uses for locomotion?
1b. What is the name of the cell part that the Heliozoan uses for locomotion? (Hint: be specific)
1c. What type of protozoan is the Heliozoan? A. Flagellate; B. Ciliate; C. Amoeboid; D. Apicomplexan/Sporozoan

2a. What type of microscopy was used in the creation of Image B? A. Brightfield; B. Phase Contrast; C. Differential Interference Contrast
2b. How can you tell? While referencing Image B, list two characteristics of the image you can use to differentiate between the technique you chose and the other two techniques listed in 2a. (Note: two characteristics in total)

3a. Using the following observations (all of which are true), create a hypothesis for Myrionecta rubra's method of gaining nutrition. Be sure to reference at least 3 of the following observations in your answer:
Observation A: Myrionecta rubra is known to produce large red blooms in coastal waters in the spring and fall.
Observation B: Myrionecta rubra is a protozoan, but it can produce its own energy via photosynthesis.
Observation C: The principal food of Myrionecta rubra are Cryptomonads, various types of photosynthetic algae.
Observation D: The nuclei of the Cryptomonads consumed by Myrionecta rubra are retained for up to 30 days by Myrionecta rubra, for the specific purpose of producing enzymes specific and necessary to the normal functioning of the Cryptomonads' chloroplasts.
Observation E: Genetic sequencing of Myrionecta rubra reveals DNA from 3 distinct sources. However, upon repeating the genetic sequencing process with a sample of Myrionecta rubra that has been removed from the ocean and placed into a sterile medium for about a month, DNA from only 2 sources is found.
3b. List the 3 sources of DNA described in observation E, and explain why one of them is no longer found one month after placing Myrionecta rubra in a culture.
3c. What is the name for Myrionecta rubra's method of gaining nutrition?

Bonus 1: Give an example of a type of genetic sequencing that might have been used in Observation E, and briefly explain how it works.
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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby whythelongface » March 2nd, 2018, 8:22 pm

The virus has gained resistance to the ART via the natural selection of a beneficial mutation.
Correct; specifically, pol encodes reverse transcriptase so you would be looking at antiretroviral drugs that specifically target RT.
Wow, that was a complete guess.

Okay, here's the next question (whew, this ended up being a long one. Sorry, but I hope you guys enjoy it!)

Image A: Image
Image A is of Myrionecta rubra.

Image B: Image
Image B is of an unspecified heliozoan, that uses different means of locomotion from Myrionecta rubra.
1a. What is the name of the cell part that Myrionecta rubra uses for locomotion?
1b. What is the name of the cell part that the Heliozoan uses for locomotion? (Hint: be specific)
1c. What type of protozoan is the Heliozoan? A. Flagellate; B. Ciliate; C. Amoeboid; D. Apicomplexan/Sporozoan

2a. What type of microscopy was used in the creation of Image B? A. Brightfield; B. Phase Contrast; C. Differential Interference Contrast
2b. How can you tell? While referencing Image B, list two characteristics of the image you can use to differentiate between the technique you chose and the other two techniques listed in 2a. (Note: two characteristics in total)

3a. Using the following observations (all of which are true), create a hypothesis for Myrionecta rubra's method of gaining nutrition. Be sure to reference at least 3 of the following observations in your answer:
Observation A: Myrionecta rubra is known to produce large red blooms in coastal waters in the spring and fall.
Observation B: Myrionecta rubra is a protozoan, but it can produce its own energy via photosynthesis.
Observation C: The principal food of Myrionecta rubra are Cryptomonads, various types of photosynthetic algae.
Observation D: The nuclei of the Cryptomonads consumed by Myrionecta rubra are retained for up to 30 days by Myrionecta rubra, for the specific purpose of producing enzymes specific and necessary to the normal functioning of the Cryptomonads' chloroplasts.
Observation E: Genetic sequencing of Myrionecta rubra reveals DNA from 3 distinct sources. However, upon repeating the genetic sequencing process with a sample of Myrionecta rubra that has been removed from the ocean and placed into a sterile medium for about a month, DNA from only 2 sources is found.
3b. List the 3 sources of DNA described in observation E, and explain why one of them is no longer found one month after placing Myrionecta rubra in a culture.
3c. What is the name for Myrionecta rubra's method of gaining nutrition?

Bonus 1: Give an example of a type of genetic sequencing that might have been used in Observation E, and briefly explain how it works.
1a. Cillia?
1b. Pseudopodia/axopodia (only after Googling it)
1c. Amoeboid?

2a. Phase Contrast
2b. Existence of a halo around objects and visualization of very fine cell appendages?

3a. Observation A tells us that [i]M. rubra[/i] occurs in Spring and Fall overturns, when nutrients are plentiful to support algal blooms. Observation B suggests that it is a grazing organism, and C tells us that it feeds on algae.
 Observation D reveals that cryptomonad DNA is retained for a month. Therefore, we can infer that [i]M. rubra[/i] both gets nutrients from hunting algae and photosynthesis, and photosynthetic function is retained by the predation of cryptomonads.
3b. There will be [i]Myrionecta[/i] DNA, cryptomonad DNA (which is retained for a month, which is why it is no longer detectable after a month in isolation), and chloroplast DNA. 
3c. Photoautotrophy and heterotrophy

Bonus: Sanger Sequencing, where a DNA template to be read has photophore-modified NTPs bind to the template in cycles. The fluorescence peaks are monitored to produce a sequence of peaks, which can then be used to determine the identity of the nucleobases.
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"One little Sciolyer left all alone,
He went out and hanged himself and then there were none."

Congratulations to WW-P South for winning 14th place at Nationals!

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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby Alex-RCHS » March 2nd, 2018, 9:50 pm


Correct; specifically, pol encodes reverse transcriptase so you would be looking at antiretroviral drugs that specifically target RT.
Wow, that was a complete guess.

Okay, here's the next question (whew, this ended up being a long one. Sorry, but I hope you guys enjoy it!)

Image A: Image
Image A is of Myrionecta rubra.

Image B: Image
Image B is of an unspecified heliozoan, that uses different means of locomotion from Myrionecta rubra.
1a. What is the name of the cell part that Myrionecta rubra uses for locomotion?
1b. What is the name of the cell part that the Heliozoan uses for locomotion? (Hint: be specific)
1c. What type of protozoan is the Heliozoan? A. Flagellate; B. Ciliate; C. Amoeboid; D. Apicomplexan/Sporozoan

2a. What type of microscopy was used in the creation of Image B? A. Brightfield; B. Phase Contrast; C. Differential Interference Contrast
2b. How can you tell? While referencing Image B, list two characteristics of the image you can use to differentiate between the technique you chose and the other two techniques listed in 2a. (Note: two characteristics in total)

3a. Using the following observations (all of which are true), create a hypothesis for Myrionecta rubra's method of gaining nutrition. Be sure to reference at least 3 of the following observations in your answer:
Observation A: Myrionecta rubra is known to produce large red blooms in coastal waters in the spring and fall.
Observation B: Myrionecta rubra is a protozoan, but it can produce its own energy via photosynthesis.
Observation C: The principal food of Myrionecta rubra are Cryptomonads, various types of photosynthetic algae.
Observation D: The nuclei of the Cryptomonads consumed by Myrionecta rubra are retained for up to 30 days by Myrionecta rubra, for the specific purpose of producing enzymes specific and necessary to the normal functioning of the Cryptomonads' chloroplasts.
Observation E: Genetic sequencing of Myrionecta rubra reveals DNA from 3 distinct sources. However, upon repeating the genetic sequencing process with a sample of Myrionecta rubra that has been removed from the ocean and placed into a sterile medium for about a month, DNA from only 2 sources is found.
3b. List the 3 sources of DNA described in observation E, and explain why one of them is no longer found one month after placing Myrionecta rubra in a culture.
3c. What is the name for Myrionecta rubra's method of gaining nutrition?

Bonus 1: Give an example of a type of genetic sequencing that might have been used in Observation E, and briefly explain how it works.
1a. Cillia?
1b. Pseudopodia/axopodia (only after Googling it)
1c. Amoeboid?

2a. Phase Contrast
2b. Existence of a halo around objects and visualization of very fine cell appendages?

3a. Observation A tells us that [i]M. rubra[/i] occurs in Spring and Fall overturns, when nutrients are plentiful to support algal blooms. Observation B suggests that it is a grazing organism, and C tells us that it feeds on algae.
 Observation D reveals that cryptomonad DNA is retained for a month. Therefore, we can infer that [i]M. rubra[/i] both gets nutrients from hunting algae and photosynthesis, and photosynthetic function is retained by the predation of cryptomonads.
3b. There will be [i]Myrionecta[/i] DNA, cryptomonad DNA (which is retained for a month, which is why it is no longer detectable after a month in isolation), and chloroplast DNA. 
3c. Photoautotrophy and heterotrophy

Bonus: Sanger Sequencing, where a DNA template to be read has photophore-modified NTPs bind to the template in cycles. The fluorescence peaks are monitored to produce a sequence of peaks, which can then be used to determine the identity of the nucleobases.
Actually, those answers are very good.
1a. Correct
1b. Yes, axopodia was the specific answer I was looking for. 
1c. Correct
2a. Correct (to be fair, I don’t actually know for certain as the source did not say what type of microscope took it, but I think phase contrast is right)
2b. Yes, but I would add that it lacks the 3D appearance typical of DIC. 
3a. Yes, although you didn’t outright say that Myrionecta actually retains the Cryptomonad chloroplasts (along with the nuclei), I think it was implied. To be more specific, Myrionecta consumes Cryptomonads, digests all but the chloroplast and nuclei, and uses the nuclei to keep the chloroplasts photosynthesizing (for 30 days at most). 
3b. I should have put the initial reading as 4 sources (whoops): Myrionecta nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA, and Cryptomonad nuclear DNA and chloroplast DNA, but I forgot to think of the latter two as separate and put 3 instead. (D’oh) Anyways, yeah you basically got it. 
3c. I was looking for kleptoplasty, which is the process of an organism stealing another’s plastid and using it for nutrition, but your answers are also correct. 
Bonus: Correct.
Your turn.
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Re: Microbe Mission B/C

Postby emilyshangg » March 13th, 2018, 5:21 pm

Hey, first time posting on this,

Here's one...

1. What antibiotics do bacteria in the genus Streptomyces secrete?
2. Describe alpha/beta/gamma hemolysis on a blood agar plate?

Again, not sure how this works, so don't kill me if I did this wrong lol


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