Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Test your knowledge of various Science Olympiad events.
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Nerd_Bunny
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby Nerd_Bunny » December 16th, 2017, 1:27 pm

1. Describe lactose intolerance on each level from the cell to the whole person.
2. List the pathway of air starting at the nasal cavity or the oral cavity and ending at alveoli.
3. Describe an allergic reaction.
4. What are the real names for these abbreviations: TV, IRV, ERV, RV, VC. IC. FRC, TLC

I'm not looking for very specific answers for 1 and 3 so just summarize if you want to.
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DD: 1/16
A&P:1/31
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby Nano1llus10n » December 23rd, 2017, 8:44 pm

Nerd_Bunny wrote:1. Describe lactose intolerance on each level from the cell to the whole person.
2. List the pathway of air starting at the nasal cavity or the oral cavity and ending at alveoli.
3. Describe an allergic reaction.
4. What are the real names for these abbreviations: TV, IRV, ERV, RV, VC. IC. FRC, TLC

I'm not looking for very specific answers for 1 and 3 so just summarize if you want to.


answers
1. It is the inability to digest & metabolize lactose, a sugar found in dairy products, which is caused by a deficiency of lactase; it primarily leads to diarrhea, nausea, abdominal cramps, bloating, and gas

2. nasal or oral cavity --> nasal or oropharynx --> laryngopharynx --> larynx --> trachea --> primary bronchus --> secondary bronchus --> tertiary bronchus --> bronchioles --> terminal bronchioles --> respiratory bronchioles --> alveolar duct --> alveolar sac --> alveoli

3. I'll assume you're talking about type I hypersensitivities: allergen invades body, plasma cells produce IgE against allergen, IgE antibodies attach to mast cells in body tissues & circulating basophils, more of the same antigen invades body, antigen combines with IgE already attached to cells which triggers degranulation & release of histamine, histamine causes vasodilation & edema

4. TV = Tidal Volume, IRV = Inspiratory Reserve Volume, ERV = Expiratory Reserve Volume, RV = Residual Volume, VC = Vital Capacity, IC = Inspiratory Capacity, FRC = Functional Residual Capacity, TLC = Total Lung Capacity
2017-2018 (Div C)
Event: MIT/R/S/N
Anatomy and Physiology: 8/3/2/26
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Microbe Mission: 13/2/2/8

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Anatomy and Physiology: 1/2/8
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby Nerd_Bunny » December 25th, 2017, 6:57 am

Nano1llus10n wrote:
Nerd_Bunny wrote:1. Describe lactose intolerance on each level from the cell to the whole person.
2. List the pathway of air starting at the nasal cavity or the oral cavity and ending at alveoli.
3. Describe an allergic reaction.
4. What are the real names for these abbreviations: TV, IRV, ERV, RV, VC. IC. FRC, TLC

I'm not looking for very specific answers for 1 and 3 so just summarize if you want to.


answers
1. It is the inability to digest & metabolize lactose, a sugar found in dairy products, which is caused by a deficiency of lactase; it primarily leads to diarrhea, nausea, abdominal cramps, bloating, and gas

2. nasal or oral cavity --> nasal or oropharynx --> laryngopharynx --> larynx --> trachea --> primary bronchus --> secondary bronchus --> tertiary bronchus --> bronchioles --> terminal bronchioles --> respiratory bronchioles --> alveolar duct --> alveolar sac --> alveoli

3. I'll assume you're talking about type I hypersensitivities: allergen invades body, plasma cells produce IgE against allergen, IgE antibodies attach to mast cells in body tissues & circulating basophils, more of the same antigen invades body, antigen combines with IgE already attached to cells which triggers degranulation & release of histamine, histamine causes vasodilation & edema

4. TV = Tidal Volume, IRV = Inspiratory Reserve Volume, ERV = Expiratory Reserve Volume, RV = Residual Volume, VC = Vital Capacity, IC = Inspiratory Capacity, FRC = Functional Residual Capacity, TLC = Total Lung Capacity

Correct! Your turn.
Events: Chemistry Lab, A&P, Disease Detectives
2017 Placings
States/Nationals
RFTS: 1/37
DD: 1/16
A&P:1/31
Ecology: -/59 haha I bet you can guess what happened here...

2018 Placings
NEBO/States/Nationals
A&P: 1/1/
Chem Lab: 5/1/
DD: 1/1/

If you're curious...yes, I like rabbits.

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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby jxxu20 » December 28th, 2017, 8:07 am

Well, I guess I'll post since no one else is posting. Here goes:

1. The enzyme _____ _____ catalyzes the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid.
2. _____ _____ states that at a constant temperature, the amount of a given gas that dissolves in a given type and volume of liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas in equilibrium with that liquid. (Hint: it's a gas law)
3. With respect to partial pressure of oxygen, what will happen if the concentration of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate in the body increases? How will this affect the body?
4. If a person has a tidal volume of 600 mL and breathes 12 times per minute, calculate the approximate alveolar ventilation rate.
5. Compare and contrast the epithelial linings of the pharynx and small intestine.
6. What substance emulsifies fats for digestion? Where is this substance produced and what hormone triggers its production?
7. Intrinsic factor is produced by _____ which is secreted by _____ in the _____. What is the function of intrinsic factor?
8. _____, _____, and _____ are the three main proteolytic enzymes in the small intestine that cleave polypeptides into subunits known as peptides.
9. Cholesterol and colipase are examples of _____ molecules, meaning that they have hydrophobic and hydrophilic ends.
10. Where can Peyer's patches be found in the body?
11. Differentiate between cytotoxic T-cells and natural killer cells.
12. What cytokine stimulates the differentiation of B-cells?
13. Compare and contrast between MHC Class I and MHC Class II.
14. What is the most common and versatile antibody (immunoglobulin)?
15. Describe the mechanisms of cell-mediated and humoral immunity.

Btw you don't have to answer all of the questions -- answering a few will suffice :D
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby platypusomelette » December 28th, 2017, 11:42 am

jxxu20 wrote:Well, I guess I'll post since no one else is posting. Here goes:

1. The enzyme _____ _____ catalyzes the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid.
2. _____ _____ states that at a constant temperature, the amount of a given gas that dissolves in a given type and volume of liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas in equilibrium with that liquid. (Hint: it's a gas law)
3. With respect to partial pressure of oxygen, what will happen if the concentration of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate in the body increases? How will this affect the body?
4. If a person has a tidal volume of 600 mL and breathes 12 times per minute, calculate the approximate alveolar ventilation rate.
5. Compare and contrast the epithelial linings of the pharynx and small intestine.
6. What substance emulsifies fats for digestion? Where is this substance produced and what hormone triggers its production?
7. Intrinsic factor is produced by _____ which is secreted by _____ in the _____. What is the function of intrinsic factor?
8. _____, _____, and _____ are the three main proteolytic enzymes in the small intestine that cleave polypeptides into subunits known as peptides.
9. Cholesterol and colipase are examples of _____ molecules, meaning that they have hydrophobic and hydrophilic ends.
10. Where can Peyer's patches be found in the body?
11. Differentiate between cytotoxic T-cells and natural killer cells.
12. What cytokine stimulates the differentiation of B-cells?
13. Compare and contrast between MHC Class I and MHC Class II.
14. What is the most common and versatile antibody (immunoglobulin)?
15. Describe the mechanisms of cell-mediated and humoral immunity.

Btw you don't have to answer all of the questions -- answering a few will suffice :D

Welcome to the forum! :O
Since I have the digestive half of the event:
1. carbonic anhydrase
2. henry??
3. Oxygen will be released from hemoglobin since 2,3 BPG is an allosteric inhibitor, and partial pressure will go up. Not sure how it'd affect the body but I guess you'll have trouble taking up oxygen from the air?
5. Is it that everything past the cardia is columnar epithelium, and before it is simple squamous epithelium? The small intestine also contains microvilli
6. Bile, made in the liver. What triggers its production? I know cholecystokinin triggers its release from the gallbladder
7. By the stomach, parietal cells in fundic stomach glands. It's required for uptake of vitamin B12
9. Amphipathic
10. Small intestine
island trash trees hs
2019 events
anat: reg 4th
herp: reg 6th
genes: reg 5th
protein: reg 2nd
disease: reg 15th
fossils: reg 4th

past events
2016: a&p 1st, fossils 3rd
2017: a&p 3rd, herp 14th
2018: a&p 1st, microbe 8th, herp 13th :/
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby jxxu20 » December 28th, 2017, 12:54 pm

Sorry, my wording was a little off -- but yeah, you got all of them correct! Your turn
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby platypusomelette » December 28th, 2017, 8:11 pm

Digest-o-rama :O also don't need to answer all of these

1. What are the three salivary glands? Which one makes the most saliva?
2. Define serous vs mucous saliva
3. What are the layers of the stomach?
4. Why is it important that your chyme gets neutralized in the duodenum, and what does your pancreas release to do so?
5. What are the 3 layers of outer muscularis in the stomach and what overall function do they serve / why are they in different directions?
6. What two plexuses innervate the stomach and what layers are they in?
7. How many incisors, cuspids, and molars does an adult have? How many sets of molars do you have (first, etc.)
8. What is the fatty lymph from the lacteals in your small intestine called? What about the similarly named mix of acid and food in your stomach?
9. The angle of _____ is the turn taken around your cardia and helps as a valve to keep stomach contents out of the esophagus. What is the result of babies not having this?
10. What are the three layers of your stomach mucosa? What tiny structures are in its very surface and what do they hold?
11. Name the three / four? different divisions of your pharynx based on what they connect to
12. How do protons in the blood act around hemoglobin? (allosteric, competitive? inhibitor, promoter, substrate?)
13. Describe the oxygen dissociation curve. What shape is it? What are the axes? How do you use it / what does it mean?
14. Explain why smoking is bad for you, or maybe why it gives you emphysema

(here are the ones I didn't answer from jxxu if anyone wants them)
4. If a person has a tidal volume of 600 mL and breathes 12 times per minute, calculate the approximate alveolar ventilation rate.
8. _____, _____, and _____ are the three main proteolytic enzymes in the small intestine that cleave polypeptides into subunits known as peptides.
11. Differentiate between cytotoxic T-cells and natural killer cells.
12. What cytokine stimulates the differentiation of B-cells?
13. Compare and contrast between MHC Class I and MHC Class II.
14. What is the most common and versatile antibody (immunoglobulin)?
15. Describe the mechanisms of cell-mediated and humoral immunity.
island trash trees hs
2019 events
anat: reg 4th
herp: reg 6th
genes: reg 5th
protein: reg 2nd
disease: reg 15th
fossils: reg 4th

past events
2016: a&p 1st, fossils 3rd
2017: a&p 3rd, herp 14th
2018: a&p 1st, microbe 8th, herp 13th :/
HELL YEA WE MADE STATES

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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby jxxu20 » December 29th, 2017, 6:48 am

1. Parotid, submandibular, sublingual. Parotid gland produces the most saliva
2. Mucous saliva contains glycoproteins, proteins, and lipids and acts as a lubricant whereas serous saliva is mainly water and contains amylase which digests starch
3. (From inner to outer): Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
4. Chyme is neutralized b/c it came from the stomach. The stomach is very acidic and the duodenum wouldn't be able to stand the chyme's acidity. Bicarbonate juice (secreted by the pancreas) neutralizes chyme.
5. (I'm guessing for this one and only thought of two layers): Inner circular smooth muscle, outer longitudinal smooth muscle? Perhaps there's an "oblique layer" if there's a longitudinal layer. The layers help to perform peristalsis, which pushes chyme in the alimentary canal forward.
6. Auerbach's (Myenteric's) and Meissner's plexus. Auerbach's plexus is located in the longitudinal muscle layer of the muscularis externa and the Meissner's plexus is located in the submucosa of the stomach.
7. 8 incisors, 4 cuspids, 12 molars? I'm assuming you're not including bicuspids (premolars) and there are 8 bicuspids in the mouth. We have first molars, second molars (permanent) and third molars (wisdom teeth).
8. Chylomicron
11. Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
13. O2 dissociation curve is in a sigmoidal shape. X-axis is partial pressure of oxygen and y-axis is percent oxygen saturation of hemoglobin at a given partial pressure of oxygen. It shows you how much of the hemoglobin is "filled" with oxygen at a given point. When the percent sat. of hemoglobin is lower it usually means that the body is using up this oxygen for cellular respiration. If the curve shifts to the right, it indicates decreased pH, increased 2,3-BPG, and increased temperature whereas a leftwards shift indicates a higher pH, decreased 2,3-BPG and a lower temperature.

Questions by platypusomelette that I didn't answer:
9. The angle of _____ is the turn taken around your cardia and helps as a valve to keep stomach contents out of the esophagus. What is the result of babies not having this?
10. What are the three layers of your stomach mucosa? What tiny structures are in its very surface and what do they hold?
12. How do protons in the blood act around hemoglobin? (allosteric, competitive? inhibitor, promoter, substrate?)
14. Explain why smoking is bad for you, or maybe why it gives you emphysema
"Perhaps one did not want to be loved so much as to be understood." -- George Orwell, 1984

Events 2019: A&P, Heredity, Picture This, P&P

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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby platypusomelette » December 29th, 2017, 1:31 pm

jxxu20 wrote:1. Parotid, submandibular, sublingual. Parotid gland produces the most saliva
2. Mucous saliva contains glycoproteins, proteins, and lipids and acts as a lubricant whereas serous saliva is mainly water and contains amylase which digests starch
3. (From inner to outer): Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
4. Chyme is neutralized b/c it came from the stomach. The stomach is very acidic and the duodenum wouldn't be able to stand the chyme's acidity. Bicarbonate juice (secreted by the pancreas) neutralizes chyme.
5. (I'm guessing for this one and only thought of two layers): Inner circular smooth muscle, outer longitudinal smooth muscle? Perhaps there's an "oblique layer" if there's a longitudinal layer. The layers help to perform peristalsis, which pushes chyme in the alimentary canal forward.
6. Auerbach's (Myenteric's) and Meissner's plexus. Auerbach's plexus is located in the longitudinal muscle layer of the muscularis externa and the Meissner's plexus is located in the submucosa of the stomach.
7. 8 incisors, 4 cuspids, 12 molars? I'm assuming you're not including bicuspids (premolars) and there are 8 bicuspids in the mouth. We have first molars, second molars (permanent) and third molars (wisdom teeth).
8. Chylomicron
11. Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
13. O2 dissociation curve is in a sigmoidal shape. X-axis is partial pressure of oxygen and y-axis is percent oxygen saturation of hemoglobin at a given partial pressure of oxygen. It shows you how much of the hemoglobin is "filled" with oxygen at a given point. When the percent sat. of hemoglobin is lower it usually means that the body is using up this oxygen for cellular respiration. If the curve shifts to the right, it indicates decreased pH, increased 2,3-BPG, and increased temperature whereas a leftwards shift indicates a higher pH, decreased 2,3-BPG and a lower temperature.

Questions by platypusomelette that I didn't answer:
9. The angle of _____ is the turn taken around your cardia and helps as a valve to keep stomach contents out of the esophagus. What is the result of babies not having this?
10. What are the three layers of your stomach mucosa? What tiny structures are in its very surface and what do they hold?
12. How do protons in the blood act around hemoglobin? (allosteric, competitive? inhibitor, promoter, substrate?)
14. Explain why smoking is bad for you, or maybe why it gives you emphysema


Nice job, all correct except the sublingual actually makes the most saliva even though the parotid is bigger. Bicarbonate also allows pancreatic enzymes to work at a proper more alkaline pH. Your turn!
island trash trees hs
2019 events
anat: reg 4th
herp: reg 6th
genes: reg 5th
protein: reg 2nd
disease: reg 15th
fossils: reg 4th

past events
2016: a&p 1st, fossils 3rd
2017: a&p 3rd, herp 14th
2018: a&p 1st, microbe 8th, herp 13th :/
HELL YEA WE MADE STATES

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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby jxxu20 » December 30th, 2017, 6:24 am

1. What do alveoli secrete to keep themselves from collapsing? What type of alveolar cell is involved in this process?
2. Vasoconstriction can result from reduced concentrations of what in the blood?
3. Name the two linings/pleurae that surround the lungs.
4. What is the ideal tidal volume of a healthy person?
5. What stomach cell secretes the zymogen pepsinogen? What substance converts it into its active form pepsin?
6. Describe the pathway of starch/carbohydrate digestion within the body.
7. The absorptive cells of the small intestine are also known as what?
8. Material from the small intestine (ileum) enters the large intestine through the _____ _____.
9. Describe the significance of the gallbladder. If someone did not have a functioning gallbladder, what type of food must he/she restrict the intake of in their diet?
10. Compare and contrast between red pulp and white pulp in the spleen.
11. Describe the process of the inflammatory response. What line of immune defense is this associated with (first, second, third)?
12. Virus-infected cells secrete _____ which bind to other surrounding cells to prepare them for an upcoming invasion.
13. What are the precursors of macrophages? How could one differentiate between a macrophage and another phagocyte, such as a neutrophil? (What characteristics do macrophages have that other phagocytes don't)
14. The chemical _____ prevents blood from clotting during inflammatory response and increases vasodilation.
15. Name 3 different types of APC's (antigen-presenting cells) and describe how they "connect" the innate and adaptive immune systems together.

Again, you don't have to answer all of them ;)
"Perhaps one did not want to be loved so much as to be understood." -- George Orwell, 1984

Events 2019: A&P, Heredity, Picture This, P&P

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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby platypusomelette » December 30th, 2017, 10:11 am

jxxu20 wrote:1. What do alveoli secrete to keep themselves from collapsing? What type of alveolar cell is involved in this process?
2. Vasoconstriction can result from reduced concentrations of what in the blood?
3. Name the two linings/pleurae that surround the lungs.
4. What is the ideal tidal volume of a healthy person?
5. What stomach cell secretes the zymogen pepsinogen? What substance converts it into its active form pepsin?
6. Describe the pathway of starch/carbohydrate digestion within the body.
7. The absorptive cells of the small intestine are also known as what?
8. Material from the small intestine (ileum) enters the large intestine through the _____ _____.
9. Describe the significance of the gallbladder. If someone did not have a functioning gallbladder, what type of food must he/she restrict the intake of in their diet?
10. Compare and contrast between red pulp and white pulp in the spleen.
11. Describe the process of the inflammatory response. What line of immune defense is this associated with (first, second, third)?
12. Virus-infected cells secrete _____ which bind to other surrounding cells to prepare them for an upcoming invasion.
13. What are the precursors of macrophages? How could one differentiate between a macrophage and another phagocyte, such as a neutrophil? (What characteristics do macrophages have that other phagocytes don't)
14. The chemical _____ prevents blood from clotting during inflammatory response and increases vasodilation.
15. Name 3 different types of APC's (antigen-presenting cells) and describe how they "connect" the innate and adaptive immune systems together.

Again, you don't have to answer all of them ;)


Answers
1. Surfactant, made by type 2 alveolar cells
3. Visceral and parietal pleurae
5. Gastric chief cells, and HCl activates pepsinogen
6. (not sure about this one) They are digested partially at first by salivary amylase, then by pancreatic amylase in the duodenum and absorbed in the jejunum.
7. Enterocytes
8. ileocecal sphincter
9. The gallbladder contains excess bile created by the liver, and squeezes bile into the duodenum to help emulsify fats. Someone without a gallbladder would need to restrict fat

Questions I didn't answer
2. Vasoconstriction can result from reduced concentrations of what in the blood?
4. What is the ideal tidal volume of a healthy person?
10. Compare and contrast between red pulp and white pulp in the spleen.
11. Describe the process of the inflammatory response. What line of immune defense is this associated with (first, second, third)?
12. Virus-infected cells secrete _____ which bind to other surrounding cells to prepare them for an upcoming invasion.
13. What are the precursors of macrophages? How could one differentiate between a macrophage and another phagocyte, such as a neutrophil? (What characteristics do macrophages have that other phagocytes don't)
14. The chemical _____ prevents blood from clotting during inflammatory response and increases vasodilation.
15. Name 3 different types of APC's (antigen-presenting cells) and describe how they "connect" the innate and adaptive immune systems together.
island trash trees hs
2019 events
anat: reg 4th
herp: reg 6th
genes: reg 5th
protein: reg 2nd
disease: reg 15th
fossils: reg 4th

past events
2016: a&p 1st, fossils 3rd
2017: a&p 3rd, herp 14th
2018: a&p 1st, microbe 8th, herp 13th :/
HELL YEA WE MADE STATES

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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby jxxu20 » December 30th, 2017, 11:48 am

All correct! Adding on to what you said on #6, pancreatic amylase breaks down polysaccharides (after coming from the mouth) into disaccharides. These disaccharides are maltose, sucrose, and lactose. Because disaccharides themselves are too large to be absorbed by the small intestine, the microvilli on the brush border of the small intestine secrete maltase, sucrase, and lactase which break down the disaccharides into their individual monomers (constituents): 2 glucose molecules (maltose), a glucose and fructose molecule (sucrose) and a glucose and galactose molecule (lactose). These are then absorbed into the bloodstream through an electrochemical gradient. The monomers enter the hepatic portal vein and travel to the liver to be stored as glycogen. Your turn!
"Perhaps one did not want to be loved so much as to be understood." -- George Orwell, 1984

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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby sciencepeeps » January 7th, 2018, 10:45 am

platypusomelette wrote:
Questions I didn't answer
2. Vasoconstriction can result from reduced concentrations of what in the blood?
4. What is the ideal tidal volume of a healthy person?
10. Compare and contrast between red pulp and white pulp in the spleen.
11. Describe the process of the inflammatory response. What line of immune defense is this associated with (first, second, third)?
12. Virus-infected cells secrete _____ which bind to other surrounding cells to prepare them for an upcoming invasion.
13. What are the precursors of macrophages? How could one differentiate between a macrophage and another phagocyte, such as a neutrophil? (What characteristics do macrophages have that other phagocytes don't)
14. The chemical _____ prevents blood from clotting during inflammatory response and increases vasodilation.
15. Name 3 different types of APC's (antigen-presenting cells) and describe how they "connect" the innate and adaptive immune systems together.

2. Oxygen?
4. Most places say 500 mL, but it really depends on what “healthy” means. I would say anywhere between 420-700 mL.
10. Red pulp removes bacteria and old RBCs from the blood has RBCs, lymphocytes, and macrophages in it. White pulp is basically just lymphocytes, but also helps to purify the blood.
11. It’s usually associated with the 2nd line of defense. It is triggered by something abnormal, when the first line of defense is broken. Mast cells rush to the site and release histamine, which is basically a signal for other immune cells to go to the site. This histamine causes redness, swelling, and heat.
12. Interferons
13. Monocytes turn into macrophages. Macrophages are a lot bigger than other phagocytes.
14. Heparin? :?
15. Macrophages, B cells, dendritic cells. They interact with pathogens without memory, but they also interact with cells in the adaptive immune system.
Last edited by sciencepeeps on January 7th, 2018, 10:51 am, edited 4 times in total.
18/19 Anatomy, Boomilever, widi

17/18 region/state/nation
Anatomy (2/6/-)
Mystery Architecture (-/2/-)
Towers (3/2/3)

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Invitationals: 38
Regionals:11
State:6
Nationals:1

sciencepeeps
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby sciencepeeps » January 7th, 2018, 10:46 am

Sorry, I’m a scioly noob
18/19 Anatomy, Boomilever, widi

17/18 region/state/nation
Anatomy (2/6/-)
Mystery Architecture (-/2/-)
Towers (3/2/3)

Medal count
Invitationals: 38
Regionals:11
State:6
Nationals:1

jxxu20
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby jxxu20 » January 7th, 2018, 11:48 am

All correct, except that vasoconstriction is caused by a decrease in carbon dioxide, not oxygen.
"Perhaps one did not want to be loved so much as to be understood." -- George Orwell, 1984

Events 2019: A&P, Heredity, Picture This, P&P


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