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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: January 7th, 2018, 12:38 pm
by platypusomelette
HELLO I'M SORRY ABOUT BEING VERY LATE

1. Describe the main ducts in the biliary tree. What ducts each connect the liver, the gallbladder, and the pancreas to the common bile duct?
2. The major _____ _____ is where the common bile duct joins the duodenum, and the sphincter of _____ relaxes to open it when triggered by cholecystokinin.
3. What cells secrete cholecystokinin and where are they?
4. What two substances does secretin suppress, and what substance from the pancreas does it promote?
5. What are acinar cells?
6. What is the name of the junction between the duodenum and the jejunum? What ligament holds it up?
7. What are the two sections of the pylorus?
8. What does the ileum mainly absorb?
9. What is a hepatic lobule? What shape does the hepatic triad make around it?
10. What is an omentum?
11. Describe the process of digesting fat. What enzymes in what organs digest it and where is it absorbed? Where does it go once absorbed?
12. What methods does the stomach use to protect against digesting itself?
13. Define functional residual capacity.
14. What are the normal capacities in an adult male for IRV, TV, ERV, and RV? What about in a female?
15. What are the two main pieces of cartilage on the front of your larynx? What does the hyoid bone do?

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: January 12th, 2018, 1:11 pm
by platypusomelette
bump

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: January 16th, 2018, 11:03 am
by venules
platypusomelette wrote:HELLO I'M SORRY ABOUT BEING VERY LATE

1. Describe the main ducts in the biliary tree. What ducts each connect the liver, the gallbladder, and the pancreas to the common bile duct?
2. The major _____ _____ is where the common bile duct joins the duodenum, and the sphincter of _____ relaxes to open it when triggered by cholecystokinin.
3. What cells secrete cholecystokinin and where are they?
4. What two substances does secretin suppress, and what substance from the pancreas does it promote?
5. What are acinar cells?
6. What is the name of the junction between the duodenum and the jejunum? What ligament holds it up?
7. What are the two sections of the pylorus?
8. What does the ileum mainly absorb?
9. What is a hepatic lobule? What shape does the hepatic triad make around it?
10. What is an omentum?
11. Describe the process of digesting fat. What enzymes in what organs digest it and where is it absorbed? Where does it go once absorbed?
12. What methods does the stomach use to protect against digesting itself?
13. Define functional residual capacity.
14. What are the normal capacities in an adult male for IRV, TV, ERV, and RV? What about in a female?
15. What are the two main pieces of cartilage on the front of your larynx? What does the hyoid bone do?


I'll answer what I can!
1. cystic (gallbladder) and common hepatic (liver) duct form the common bile duct. pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct to form the ampulla of Vater.
2. not sure about first part, but second part is sphincter of Oddi aka hepatopancreatic sphincter
5. Acinar cells are pancreatic exocrine cells that produce digestive enzymes
6. suspensory muscle of duodenum aka ligament of Treitz
7. antrum (to stomach) and canal (to duodenum)
8. vitamin B12 and water-soluble vitamins
10. the layer of connective tissue that hangs over the digestive system "like an apron", part of the visceral peritoneum
13. the amount of air that remains after passive exhalation
15. c-shaped ring hyaline cartilage & thyroid cartilage; the hyoid bone serves as the attachment site for the tongue

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: January 17th, 2018, 8:00 pm
by platypusomelette
venules wrote:I'll answer what I can!
1. cystic (gallbladder) and common hepatic (liver) duct form the common bile duct. pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct to form the ampulla of Vater.
2. not sure about first part, but second part is sphincter of Oddi aka hepatopancreatic sphincter
5. Acinar cells are pancreatic exocrine cells that produce digestive enzymes
6. suspensory muscle of duodenum aka ligament of Treitz
7. antrum (to stomach) and canal (to duodenum)
8. vitamin B12 and water-soluble vitamins
10. the layer of connective tissue that hangs over the digestive system "like an apron", part of the visceral peritoneum
13. the amount of air that remains after passive exhalation
15. c-shaped ring hyaline cartilage & thyroid cartilage; the hyoid bone serves as the attachment site for the tongue

Good job! It's a little confusing but I think the major duodenal papilla is the actual opening and the sphincter of Oddi is a little before that. For 6 I was looking for duodenojejunal flexure, and the omentum specifically attaches the stomach to the liver and over the intestines.

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: January 19th, 2018, 11:45 am
by platypusomelette
Anyone wanna post questions? bump

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: January 23rd, 2018, 5:16 pm
by venules
1. Name and describe the two phases of swallowing.
2. What system of cells do Kupffer cells belong to?
3. List the fat-soluble vitamins.
4. What is the difference between primary and secondary lymphoid organs?
5. Define opsonization.
6. What causes infant respiratory distress syndrome?
7. How soon after birth is fetal hemoglobin replaced by adult hemoglobin?

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: January 24th, 2018, 7:09 pm
by Nano1llus10n
venules wrote:1. Name and describe the two phases of swallowing.
2. What system of cells do Kupffer cells belong to?
3. List the fat-soluble vitamins.
4. What is the difference between primary and secondary lymphoid organs?
5. Define opsonization.
6. What causes infant respiratory distress syndrome?
7. How soon after birth is fetal hemoglobin replaced by adult hemoglobin?

Answer
1. mastication & deglutition
2. liver cells
3. D, A, K, E
4. primary is just bone marrow and thymus
5. Attaching additional receptors to antigens so they are easily detected
6. lack of surfactant
7. basically 6 months


Explanations are pretty brief as I just did it off the top of my head.

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: January 25th, 2018, 7:59 am
by venules
1. Sort of. The answer was buccal phase and pharyngoesophageal phase, but they do the same things.
2. Yeah.
3. Correct!
4. You're right, but the difference is that lymphocytes mature in primary lymphoid organs and secondary organs are basically everything else.
5. Correct
6. Correct
7. Correct

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: January 27th, 2018, 7:23 pm
by Nano1llus10n
1. Which types of hepatitis can lead to hepatic cancer and what genetic processes do these infections alter to prevent apoptosis?
2. Which vitamins are stored in the liver?
3. What part of the tooth is decayed to be considered a cavity?
4. What are the endocrine areas of the pancreas known as?
5. What are the exocrine areas of the pancreas known as?
6. What are the long-term effects of living at high altitudes?
7. What term refers to the entry of air into the intrapleural space?

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: February 2nd, 2018, 8:32 pm
by platypusomelette
Nano1llus10n wrote:1. Which types of hepatitis can lead to hepatic cancer and what genetic processes do these infections alter to prevent apoptosis?
2. Which vitamins are stored in the liver?
3. What part of the tooth is decayed to be considered a cavity?
4. What are the endocrine areas of the pancreas known as?
5. What are the exocrine areas of the pancreas known as?
6. What are the long-term effects of living at high altitudes?
7. What term refers to the entry of air into the intrapleural space?


1. I think all the chronic hepatitis? So B, C, and D? They cause cirrhosis which increases the amount of cell replication and the chances of genetic defects?
3. Enamel
4. Islets of langerhans
5. Acinar cells? Or the rest of the pancreas?
6. You produce more red blood cells and increased respiration capacity to compensate for the lower oxygen levels.
7. Pneumothorax


My competition is tomorrow! :(

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: February 3rd, 2018, 8:30 pm
by Nano1llus10n
platypusomelette wrote:
Nano1llus10n wrote:1. Which types of hepatitis can lead to hepatic cancer and what genetic processes do these infections alter to prevent apoptosis?
2. Which vitamins are stored in the liver?
3. What part of the tooth is decayed to be considered a cavity?
4. What are the endocrine areas of the pancreas known as?
5. What are the exocrine areas of the pancreas known as?
6. What are the long-term effects of living at high altitudes?
7. What term refers to the entry of air into the intrapleural space?


1. I think all the chronic hepatitis? So B, C, and D? They cause cirrhosis which increases the amount of cell replication and the chances of genetic defects?
3. Enamel
4. Islets of langerhans
5. Acinar cells? Or the rest of the pancreas?
6. You produce more red blood cells and increased respiration capacity to compensate for the lower oxygen levels.
7. Pneumothorax


My competition is tomorrow! :(

Revision
1. correct types but second part is that they downregulate MHC 1 proteins
2. beta-carotene, calcitriol, vitamin K
3. Dentin
4. Correct
5. Correct
6. Correct
7. Correct


Your turn! :)

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: February 4th, 2018, 5:11 pm
by platypusomelette
Oh nice! Does the liver store vitamin A in the form of beta carotene or just straight up vitamin A?

1. What disease can be caused by an alpha-1 antitrypsin genetic defect: asthma, diarrhea, COPD, emphysema, or cystic fibrosis?
2. What are the four main granulocytes and what do they do? What is their namesake characteristic?
3. Which antibody is found in bodily secretions?
4. Which antibody is the largest and is a pentamer: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, or IgM?
5. What are the layers of the lining of the esophagus?
6. Which are you more likely to choke through: the left mainstem bronchus, or the right, and why?
7. ____ cells produce glycosaminoglycans to protect the lining of the lungs and can transform into columnar cells to replace them.
8. What five factors can affect hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen?

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: February 18th, 2018, 7:01 pm
by Nano1llus10n
platypusomelette wrote:Oh nice! Does the liver store vitamin A in the form of beta carotene or just straight up vitamin A?

1. What disease can be caused by an alpha-1 antitrypsin genetic defect: asthma, diarrhea, COPD, emphysema, or cystic fibrosis?
2. What are the four main granulocytes and what do they do? What is their namesake characteristic?
3. Which antibody is found in bodily secretions?
4. Which antibody is the largest and is a pentamer: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, or IgM?
5. What are the layers of the lining of the esophagus?
6. Which are you more likely to choke through: the left mainstem bronchus, or the right, and why?
7. ____ cells produce glycosaminoglycans to protect the lining of the lungs and can transform into columnar cells to replace them.
8. What five factors can affect hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen?



Answers
1. COPD & Emphysema
2. Basophils: phagocytosis, make histamine & serotonin for inflammation, heparin that prevents blood clotting; Eosinophils: combats eukaryotic parasites and certain infections; Neutrophils: phagocyte that's normally found in bloodstream; Mast cells: main role in allergic reactions; names derived from their staining characteristics
3. IgA
4. IgM
5. in to out, mucosa, submucosa, muscularis propria, adventitia
6. Right, because it is larger in size and more vertically oriented
7. Club?
8. CO2, Acid, 2,3-DPG, Exercise, Temperature

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: March 7th, 2018, 10:16 am
by farmerjoe279
What protein is found in most people that have Celiac Disease. (That is not found in people that do not have celiac disease)

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: March 13th, 2018, 2:37 pm
by The48thYoshi
farmerjoe279 wrote:What protein is found in most people that have Celiac Disease. (That is not found in people that do not have celiac disease)


answer?
Transglutaminase 2-specific autoantibodies?