Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Anomaly
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby Anomaly » February 26th, 2019, 6:21 pm

donutsandcupcakes wrote:I encountered one more question which I couldn't understand the answer for, so any help would be highly appreciated!

How many known human blood group systems are there?

a.3
b. 12
c. 14
d. 35

THE ANSWER KEY SAID THE ANSWER WAS D. I DON'T UNDERSTAND HOW THEY GOT D, SO CAN SOMEONE HELP ME UNDERSTAND, YOUR HELP WOULD BE GREATLY APPRECIATED!

I'm guessing your answer was A? It's not A because A is trying to confuse you with the A, B, and O found in the ABO blood type system. The ABO blood type system is only one of the 35 major blood grouping systems out there, with ABO being the most common.
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby WangwithaTang » February 27th, 2019, 4:35 pm

Anomaly wrote:
donutsandcupcakes wrote:I encountered one more question which I couldn't understand the answer for, so any help would be highly appreciated!

How many known human blood group systems are there?

a.3
b. 12
c. 14
d. 35

THE ANSWER KEY SAID THE ANSWER WAS D. I DON'T UNDERSTAND HOW THEY GOT D, SO CAN SOMEONE HELP ME UNDERSTAND, YOUR HELP WOULD BE GREATLY APPRECIATED!

I'm guessing your answer was A? It's not A because A is trying to confuse you with the A, B, and O found in the ABO blood type system. The ABO blood type system is only one of the 35 major blood grouping systems out there, with ABO being the most common.

What are the blood groups and do we honestly have to know them?

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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby WangwithaTang » February 27th, 2019, 4:48 pm

Also, what are the forces that act on the capillaries in Starling's forces again?

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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby donutsandcupcakes » February 27th, 2019, 5:38 pm

Anomaly wrote:
donutsandcupcakes wrote:I encountered one more question which I couldn't understand the answer for, so any help would be highly appreciated!

How many known human blood group systems are there?

a.3
b. 12
c. 14
d. 35

THE ANSWER KEY SAID THE ANSWER WAS D. I DON'T UNDERSTAND HOW THEY GOT D, SO CAN SOMEONE HELP ME UNDERSTAND, YOUR HELP WOULD BE GREATLY APPRECIATED!

I'm guessing your answer was A? It's not A because A is trying to confuse you with the A, B, and O found in the ABO blood type system. The ABO blood type system is only one of the 35 major blood grouping systems out there, with ABO being the most common.


Thank You, I honestly didn't have an answer to this question, and your explanation really helped. :)

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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby Limke » February 28th, 2019, 3:58 pm

WangwithaTang wrote:
Anomaly wrote:
donutsandcupcakes wrote:I encountered one more question which I couldn't understand the answer for, so any help would be highly appreciated!

How many known human blood group systems are there?

a.3
b. 12
c. 14
d. 35

THE ANSWER KEY SAID THE ANSWER WAS D. I DON'T UNDERSTAND HOW THEY GOT D, SO CAN SOMEONE HELP ME UNDERSTAND, YOUR HELP WOULD BE GREATLY APPRECIATED!

I'm guessing your answer was A? It's not A because A is trying to confuse you with the A, B, and O found in the ABO blood type system. The ABO blood type system is only one of the 35 major blood grouping systems out there, with ABO being the most common.

What are the blood groups and do we honestly have to know them?


I’ve heard of there being 35 different types of systems before, but only actually encountered 2, 1 of them being the ABO blood typing system. The other one is Rh, which is generally associated with ABO and is sometimes indicated by letter D, C, c, E (different antigens) or just straight up “Rh” (Rh: rhesus). Rh(D) is the system that indicates a “positive” or “negative” blood type (ie AB positive) and I haven’t encountered too many questions about it. It’s just important to know that Rh is dominant for the positive trait and Rh negative means an individual lacks the Rh antigen.
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby Limke » February 28th, 2019, 4:07 pm

WangwithaTang wrote:Also, what are the forces that act on the capillaries in Starling's forces again?


Starlings forces is talking about hydrostatic and oncotic pressures in the capillaries/interstitial fluid. The four forces are hydrostatic capillary pressure, oncotic capillary pressure, hydrostatic interstitial, and oncotic interstitial. (Oncotic = colloid osmotic) Hydrostatic is the pressure from the fluid (in this case water) while oncotic is pressure created by proteins in the blood plasma. Greater hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries leads to filtration, while water will move into the capillaries if oncotic pressure is higher, because water potential is lower.

Also to note, Starling’s Law and Starlings Forces are two different things, so if it ever asks about Starling’s Law, it refers to stroke volume and end diastolic pressure in the heart (more in; more out).
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby WangwithaTang » February 28th, 2019, 4:34 pm

Limke wrote:
WangwithaTang wrote:Also, what are the forces that act on the capillaries in Starling's forces again?


Starlings forces is talking about hydrostatic and oncotic pressures in the capillaries/interstitial fluid. The four forces are hydrostatic capillary pressure, oncotic capillary pressure, hydrostatic interstitial, and oncotic interstitial. (Oncotic = colloid osmotic) Hydrostatic is the pressure from the fluid (in this case water) while oncotic is pressure created by proteins in the blood plasma. Greater hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries leads to filtration, while water will move into the capillaries if oncotic pressure is higher, because water potential is lower.

Also to note, Starling’s Law and Starlings Forces are two different things, so if it ever asks about Starling’s Law, it refers to stroke volume and end diastolic pressure in the heart (more in; more out).

Ok, so the general equation for starling's forces is just (all forms of hydrostatic pressure) - (all forms of oncotic pressure)?

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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby donutsandcupcakes » February 28th, 2019, 6:49 pm

Are medals achievable even if your partner is doing nothing? For ex, I am doing 2 systems and my partner is doing 1. He is not working very hard, and not giving A+P too much time.

I tried doing his studies too but it too hard at the last moment, so I am really questioning my chances of winning a medal?

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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby Crimesolver » February 28th, 2019, 6:52 pm

donutsandcupcakes wrote:Are medals achievable even if your partner is doing nothing? For ex, I am doing 2 systems and my partner is doing 1. He is not working very hard, and not giving A+P too much time.

I tried doing his studies too but it too hard at the last moment, so I am really questioning my chances of winning a medal?

My friend managed to get 1st with a kinda bad partner, so it's definitely possible. You just have to be really passionate and study as much as possible.
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby donutsandcupcakes » February 28th, 2019, 7:56 pm

Hi, I was having a hard time finding a diagram for thymus which would be appropriate for the competition. So could someone pls help?

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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby donutsandcupcakes » February 28th, 2019, 7:57 pm

Crimesolver wrote:
donutsandcupcakes wrote:Are medals achievable even if your partner is doing nothing? For ex, I am doing 2 systems and my partner is doing 1. He is not working very hard, and not giving A+P too much time.

I tried doing his studies too but it too hard at the last moment, so I am really questioning my chances of winning a medal?

My friend managed to get 1st with a kinda bad partner, so it's definitely possible. You just have to be really passionate and study as much as possible.


Thank You for the positive note, I am trying my best to not depend on my partner.

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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby Anomaly » February 28th, 2019, 8:13 pm

donutsandcupcakes wrote:
Crimesolver wrote:
donutsandcupcakes wrote:Are medals achievable even if your partner is doing nothing? For ex, I am doing 2 systems and my partner is doing 1. He is not working very hard, and not giving A+P too much time.

I tried doing his studies too but it too hard at the last moment, so I am really questioning my chances of winning a medal?

My friend managed to get 1st with a kinda bad partner, so it's definitely possible. You just have to be really passionate and study as much as possible.


Thank You for the positive note, I am trying my best to not depend on my partner.

In situations like this, it's best to give the weaker partner the stuff like labeling stuff on diagrams, writing down things verbatim from the notesheet while you the harder theory. They should know the basics at least of the system that they are supposed to be doing, it may help you to study a bit of their system though.
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby bp31000 » March 1st, 2019, 12:43 pm

donutsandcupcakes wrote:
Crimesolver wrote:
donutsandcupcakes wrote:Are medals achievable even if your partner is doing nothing? For ex, I am doing 2 systems and my partner is doing 1. He is not working very hard, and not giving A+P too much time.

I tried doing his studies too but it too hard at the last moment, so I am really questioning my chances of winning a medal?

My friend managed to get 1st with a kinda bad partner, so it's definitely possible. You just have to be really passionate and study as much as possible.


Thank You for the positive note, I am trying my best to not depend on my partner.

i was in the same boat last year, my partner was busy with her build event and couldn't answer much from resp system. we still managed to get 4th in the state because i studied my systems well and basics of Resp system. a good cheat sheet will be the key. all the best.
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby bp31000 » March 1st, 2019, 12:52 pm

WangwithaTang wrote:Ok, so the general equation for starling's forces is just (all forms of hydrostatic pressure) - (all forms of oncotic pressure)?

no
[ Hydrostatic pressure of inside the capillary(pushes water out) + osmotic pressure of interstitium (pulls water out into interstitium) ] - [hydrostatic pressure in the interstitium (pushes water from coming into interstitium) + osmotic pressure in capillary (tries to pull water into capillary)]

This is my understanding of it. someone please correct me if i am wrong.
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby Limke » March 1st, 2019, 1:31 pm

bp31000 wrote:
WangwithaTang wrote:Ok, so the general equation for starling's forces is just (all forms of hydrostatic pressure) - (all forms of oncotic pressure)?

no
[ Hydrostatic pressure of inside the capillary(pushes water out) + osmotic pressure of interstitium (pulls water out into interstitium) ] - [hydrostatic pressure in the interstitium (pushes water from coming into interstitium) + osmotic pressure in capillary (tries to pull water into capillary)]

This is my understanding of it. someone please correct me if i am wrong.


From my understanding, the general equation for Starling's forces is (Capillary hydrostatic - interstitial hydrostatic) - (Capillary oncotic - interstitial oncotic) in terms of variables. There are coefficients in the equation (filtration coefficient, reflection coefficient). There are versions of the equation with variables defined under google images.

Conceptually, hydrostatic pressure will move water out because there is more free water (greater water potential), while oncotic pressure will draw water to an area, due to a lower water potential, with water potential being the amount of free water unbound to solutes and water moving from areas of high to low potential. For example, higher hydrostatic pressure inside the capillaries will increase the water potential and move water out of the capillary IF the concentration of solutes in the interstitial fluid is greater. If the concentration of solutes inside the capillary is greater (aka a lower water potential and greater oncotic pressure) than the interstitium, then water will move into the capillary.

The Starling's forces equation refers specifically to the net flow of fluid between capillary and interstitial spaces. A positive net flux means that water is leaving the capillary (Hydrostatic>oncotic) while a negative flux indicates water entering (oncotic>hydrostatic). Hopefully, this explanation is helpful!
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