Designer Genes C

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jaspattack
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Re: Designer Genes C

Post by jaspattack » January 6th, 2020, 4:11 pm

Does the structure of tRNA come up often other than the fact that it has an anticodon on one end and an amino acid on another? Also, are Lac and Trp operons still relevant? They aren't explicitly stated in the rules, but it also probably falls under mechanisms of gene expression or something.
2019-20 Events (C): Designer Genes, Forensics, Fossils
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Re: Designer Genes C

Post by eagerlearner102 » January 10th, 2020, 8:54 pm

You should probably know aminoacyl synthetase and peptidyl transferase. It would be a good idea to know that ATP binds to the tRNA activating enzymes to attach amino acid to tRNA, leaving ATP to become AMP.
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Re: Designer Genes C

Post by farmerjoe279 » January 31st, 2020, 7:58 am

Long time no see.

When converting a DNA sequence to protein are these the following steps?

1. Convert DNA (5'-3') to mRNA (3'-5')
2. Flip mRNA (3'-5') to mRNA (5'-3')
3. Use codon table to convert RNA (5'-3') to protein.

I did a test where the answer key skipped the 2nd step, but I'm pretty sure that's incorrect because ribosomes can't read mRNA in the 3'-5' direction (according to google and my textbook it reads mRNA from 5' to 3').
Just wanted to ask you all to make sure I'm not missing anything.

Thanks!
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Heredity: 2, 1, 15
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Re: Designer Genes C

Post by jaspattack » January 31st, 2020, 12:01 pm

farmerjoe279 wrote:
January 31st, 2020, 7:58 am
Long time no see.

When converting a DNA sequence to protein are these the following steps?

1. Convert DNA (5'-3') to mRNA (3'-5')
2. Flip mRNA (3'-5') to mRNA (5'-3')
3. Use codon table to convert RNA (5'-3') to protein.

I did a test where the answer key skipped the 2nd step, but I'm pretty sure that's incorrect because ribosomes can't read mRNA in the 3'-5' direction (according to google and my textbook it reads mRNA from 5' to 3').
Just wanted to ask you all to make sure I'm not missing anything.

Thanks!
You're right that ribosomes can't read RNA in the 3' to 5' direction, but you're wrong about the idea that RNA runs from 3' to 5'. The DNA is read by the RNA polymerase from 3' to 5' so the RNA is built from 5' to 3'. This way, it matches the sense (coding) strand instead of the antisense strand that it's replicated from. Since translation reads from 5' to 3', no flipping needs to occur.
2019-20 Events (C): Designer Genes, Forensics, Fossils
2018-19 Events (C): Designer Genes, Fossils, Write It Do It (Mousetrap Vehicle and Experimental Design @ Regionals)
2017-18 Events (B): Rocks and Minerals, Wright Stuff, Write It Do It
I edit the wiki sometimes.

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Re: Designer Genes C

Post by farmerjoe279 » January 31st, 2020, 12:07 pm

jaspattack wrote:
January 31st, 2020, 12:01 pm
farmerjoe279 wrote:
January 31st, 2020, 7:58 am
Long time no see.

When converting a DNA sequence to protein are these the following steps?

1. Convert DNA (5'-3') to mRNA (3'-5')
2. Flip mRNA (3'-5') to mRNA (5'-3')
3. Use codon table to convert RNA (5'-3') to protein.

I did a test where the answer key skipped the 2nd step, but I'm pretty sure that's incorrect because ribosomes can't read mRNA in the 3'-5' direction (according to google and my textbook it reads mRNA from 5' to 3').
Just wanted to ask you all to make sure I'm not missing anything.

Thanks!
You're right that ribosomes can't read RNA in the 3' to 5' direction, but you're wrong about the idea that RNA runs from 3' to 5'. The DNA is read by the RNA polymerase from 3' to 5' so the RNA is built from 5' to 3'. This way, it matches the sense (coding) strand instead of the antisense strand that it's replicated from. Since translation reads from 5' to 3', no flipping needs to occur.
That makes sense, so 5'-CTTCGGGAA-3' DNA would not result in Phe-Pro-Lys?
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Designer Genes:
Machines:

2019 Events (R, S, N)
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Heredity: 2, 1, 15
Meteorology: 1, 1, 10

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Re: Designer Genes C

Post by jaspattack » January 31st, 2020, 3:21 pm

farmerjoe279 wrote:
January 31st, 2020, 12:07 pm
jaspattack wrote:
January 31st, 2020, 12:01 pm
farmerjoe279 wrote:
January 31st, 2020, 7:58 am
Long time no see.

When converting a DNA sequence to protein are these the following steps?

1. Convert DNA (5'-3') to mRNA (3'-5')
2. Flip mRNA (3'-5') to mRNA (5'-3')
3. Use codon table to convert RNA (5'-3') to protein.

I did a test where the answer key skipped the 2nd step, but I'm pretty sure that's incorrect because ribosomes can't read mRNA in the 3'-5' direction (according to google and my textbook it reads mRNA from 5' to 3').
Just wanted to ask you all to make sure I'm not missing anything.

Thanks!
You're right that ribosomes can't read RNA in the 3' to 5' direction, but you're wrong about the idea that RNA runs from 3' to 5'. The DNA is read by the RNA polymerase from 3' to 5' so the RNA is built from 5' to 3'. This way, it matches the sense (coding) strand instead of the antisense strand that it's replicated from. Since translation reads from 5' to 3', no flipping needs to occur.
That makes sense, so 5'-CTTCGGGAA-3' DNA would not result in Phe-Pro-Lys?
The strand you just posted would be the sense (coding) strand. The complete strand of DNA would be:
5'-CTTCGGGAA-3'
3'-GAAGCCCTT-5'
Since the RNA is replicated from the 3'-5' (antisense) strand of DNA, it matches the 5'-3' strand instead of being complementary to it. Since that's the case, the resulting RNA would be CUUCGGGAA instead of GAAGCCCUU. The answer is probably Leu-Arg-Glu instead of Phe-Pro-Lys.
2019-20 Events (C): Designer Genes, Forensics, Fossils
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2017-18 Events (B): Rocks and Minerals, Wright Stuff, Write It Do It
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Re: Designer Genes C

Post by farmerjoe279 » January 31st, 2020, 3:25 pm

jaspattack wrote:
January 31st, 2020, 3:21 pm
farmerjoe279 wrote:
January 31st, 2020, 12:07 pm
jaspattack wrote:
January 31st, 2020, 12:01 pm


You're right that ribosomes can't read RNA in the 3' to 5' direction, but you're wrong about the idea that RNA runs from 3' to 5'. The DNA is read by the RNA polymerase from 3' to 5' so the RNA is built from 5' to 3'. This way, it matches the sense (coding) strand instead of the antisense strand that it's replicated from. Since translation reads from 5' to 3', no flipping needs to occur.
That makes sense, so 5'-CTTCGGGAA-3' DNA would not result in Phe-Pro-Lys?
The strand you just posted would be the sense (coding) strand. The complete strand of DNA would be:
5'-CTTCGGGAA-3'
3'-GAAGCCCTT-5'
Since the RNA is replicated from the 3'-5' (antisense) strand of DNA, it matches the 5'-3' strand instead of being complementary to it. Since that's the case, the resulting RNA would be CUUCGGGAA instead of GAAGCCCUU. The answer is probably Leu-Arg-Glu instead of Phe-Pro-Lys.
Welp, my textbook is wrong.
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Designer Genes:
Machines:

2019 Events (R, S, N)
Anatomy: 1, 2, 13
Heredity: 2, 1, 15
Meteorology: 1, 1, 10

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Re: Designer Genes C

Post by eagerlearner102 » February 1st, 2020, 8:20 pm

I think the easy way to remember is that 5'-->3' is the coding strand so it has to code for the sequence. The mRNA binds to template strand (3'-->5') so mRNA can be 5'-->3' by complementary base pairing.
2020 events: Protein Modeling, Ping Pong Parachute, Designer Genes
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Re: Designer Genes C

Post by cclinton2 » February 7th, 2020, 1:00 pm

I wrote a test for Designer Genes C at one of my states' regional competitions but I'm not sure how to upload the test and key files to the test exchange. Last competition season I wrote a Solar Systems B test and got it up on the wiki without any problems, but now that the test exchange isn't tied to the wiki I have no clue how to use it.

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Re: Designer Genes C

Post by jaspattack » February 10th, 2020, 9:19 am

cclinton2 wrote:
February 7th, 2020, 1:00 pm
I wrote a test for Designer Genes C at one of my states' regional competitions but I'm not sure how to upload the test and key files to the test exchange. Last competition season I wrote a Solar Systems B test and got it up on the wiki without any problems, but now that the test exchange isn't tied to the wiki I have no clue how to use it.
People can't upload to the test exchange at the moment. The 2020 Test Exchange Wiki is where you should put tests you've written yourself, I believe.
2019-20 Events (C): Designer Genes, Forensics, Fossils
2018-19 Events (C): Designer Genes, Fossils, Write It Do It (Mousetrap Vehicle and Experimental Design @ Regionals)
2017-18 Events (B): Rocks and Minerals, Wright Stuff, Write It Do It
I edit the wiki sometimes.

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