Heredity B/Designer Genes C

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Nano1llus10n
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Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby Nano1llus10n » September 3rd, 2018, 8:23 pm

Welcome to a new season, let's start off with something relatively basic:

Name the 5 principles of the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium.
2017-2018 (Div C)
Event: MIT/R/S/N
Anatomy and Physiology: 8/3/2/26
Helicopters: 11/-/2/43
Microbe Mission: 13/2/2/8


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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby starstudent » September 4th, 2018, 2:44 pm

Nano1llus10n wrote:Welcome to a new season, let's start off with something relatively basic:

Name the 5 principles of the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium.


Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium states that in order to remain in equilibrium, the population must:
1. be fairly large.
2. have no immigration or emigration, because this may introduce new genes into the gene pool.
3. Must carry out random mating, because selective mating will favor a certain trait.
4. Must have no natural selection
5. No genetic mutations??

Hope I got that right...

UTF-8 U+6211 U+662F
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby UTF-8 U+6211 U+662F » September 4th, 2018, 5:43 pm

starstudent wrote:
Nano1llus10n wrote:Welcome to a new season, let's start off with something relatively basic:

Name the 5 principles of the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium.

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium states that in order to remain in equilibrium, the population must:
1. be fairly large.
2. have no immigration or emigration, because this may introduce new genes into the gene pool.
3. Must carry out random mating, because selective mating will favor a certain trait.
4. Must have no natural selection
5. No genetic mutations??

Hope I got that right...

Make sure to hide your answers in [answer] or [hide] or [spoiler] tags like this, so other people can read along! :)

Code: Select all

[answer]42[/answer]


Code: Select all

[hide]The answer is|42.[/hide]


Code: Select all

[spoiler]The answer is 42.[/spoiler]


(And yes, I think you got it right.)

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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby Nano1llus10n » September 4th, 2018, 5:52 pm

starstudent wrote:
Nano1llus10n wrote:Welcome to a new season, let's start off with something relatively basic:

Name the 5 principles of the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium.


Answer
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium states that in order to remain in equilibrium, the population must:
1. be fairly large.
2. have no immigration or emigration, because this may introduce new genes into the gene pool.
3. Must carry out random mating, because selective mating will favor a certain trait.
4. Must have no natural selection
5. No genetic mutations??



Hope I got that right...


That's right, your turn
2017-2018 (Div C)
Event: MIT/R/S/N
Anatomy and Physiology: 8/3/2/26
Helicopters: 11/-/2/43
Microbe Mission: 13/2/2/8


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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby starstudent » September 4th, 2018, 6:34 pm

UTF-8 U+6211 U+662F wrote:
starstudent wrote:
Nano1llus10n wrote:Welcome to a new season, let's start off with something relatively basic:

Name the 5 principles of the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium.

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium states that in order to remain in equilibrium, the population must:
1. be fairly large.
2. have no immigration or emigration, because this may introduce new genes into the gene pool.
3. Must carry out random mating, because selective mating will favor a certain trait.
4. Must have no natural selection
5. No genetic mutations??

Hope I got that right...

Make sure to hide your answers in [answer] or [hide] or [spoiler] tags like this, so other people can read along! :)

Code: Select all

[answer]42[/answer]


Code: Select all

[hide]The answer is|42.[/hide]


Code: Select all

[spoiler]The answer is 42.[/spoiler]


(And yes, I think you got it right.)


Thanks, will keep that in mind.

1. What is nondisjunction, and what are some possible consequences of this?
2. Describe the composition and structure of DNA.
3. What is the resulting phenotype ratio of a dihybrid cross?

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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby jxxu20 » September 7th, 2018, 3:00 pm

1. Nondisjunction occurs when pairs of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids fail to split during meiosis, which causes the gametes produced to have more or less than the normal number of chromosomes (23 for gametes). Extra or missing chromosomes in offspring (chromosomal aneuploidy) causes disorders such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and Klinefelter syndrome (XXY syndrome), to name a few.

2. DNA is in a double helix structure, or two strands of DNA intertwined around each other. A strand of DNA is made of subunits known as nucleotides, which are made up of a nitrogenous base (adenine which pairs with thymine; guanine with cytosine), a pentose (five-carbon) sugar, and a phosphate group which is attached to the 3' and 5' carbons to the sugars above and below it. The nitrogenous bases are held together by hydrogen bonds and the two strands run antiparallel to each other (I hope this was enough).

3. I would need the genotypes of the parents to perform a dihybrid cross.
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby platypusomelette » September 8th, 2018, 2:35 pm

jxxu20 wrote:1. Nondisjunction occurs when pairs of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids fail to split during meiosis, which causes the gametes produced to have more or less than the normal number of chromosomes (23 for gametes). Extra or missing chromosomes in offspring (chromosomal aneuploidy) causes disorders such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and Klinefelter syndrome (XXY syndrome), to name a few.

2. DNA is in a double helix structure, or two strands of DNA intertwined around each other. A strand of DNA is made of subunits known as nucleotides, which are made up of a nitrogenous base (adenine which pairs with thymine; guanine with cytosine), a pentose (five-carbon) sugar, and a phosphate group which is attached to the 3' and 5' carbons to the sugars above and below it. The nitrogenous bases are held together by hydrogen bonds and the two strands run antiparallel to each other (I hope this was enough).

3. I would need the genotypes of the parents to perform a dihybrid cross.


I think he means the general ratio you need to remember for a dihybrid cross (ex. number:number:number:number)
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anat: reg 4th
herp: reg 6th
genes: reg 5th
protein: reg 2nd
disease: reg 15th
fossils: reg 4th

past events
2016: a&p 1st, fossils 3rd
2017: a&p 3rd, herp 14th
2018: a&p 1st, microbe 8th, herp 13th :/
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby UTF-8 U+6211 U+662F » September 8th, 2018, 2:45 pm

platypusomelette wrote:
jxxu20 wrote:1. Nondisjunction occurs when pairs of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids fail to split during meiosis, which causes the gametes produced to have more or less than the normal number of chromosomes (23 for gametes). Extra or missing chromosomes in offspring (chromosomal aneuploidy) causes disorders such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and Klinefelter syndrome (XXY syndrome), to name a few.

2. DNA is in a double helix structure, or two strands of DNA intertwined around each other. A strand of DNA is made of subunits known as nucleotides, which are made up of a nitrogenous base (adenine which pairs with thymine; guanine with cytosine), a pentose (five-carbon) sugar, and a phosphate group which is attached to the 3' and 5' carbons to the sugars above and below it. The nitrogenous bases are held together by hydrogen bonds and the two strands run antiparallel to each other (I hope this was enough).

3. I would need the genotypes of the parents to perform a dihybrid cross.


I think he means the general ratio you need to remember for a dihybrid cross (ex. number:number:number:number)

It's been a while, but I think you're meant to assume both parents are heterogenous in both traits here.

(P.S. is the answer 9:3:3:1 ?)

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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby starstudent » September 8th, 2018, 3:57 pm

platypusomelette wrote:
jxxu20 wrote:1. Nondisjunction occurs when pairs of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids fail to split during meiosis, which causes the gametes produced to have more or less than the normal number of chromosomes (23 for gametes). Extra or missing chromosomes in offspring (chromosomal aneuploidy) causes disorders such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and Klinefelter syndrome (XXY syndrome), to name a few.

2. DNA is in a double helix structure, or two strands of DNA intertwined around each other. A strand of DNA is made of subunits known as nucleotides, which are made up of a nitrogenous base (adenine which pairs with thymine; guanine with cytosine), a pentose (five-carbon) sugar, and a phosphate group which is attached to the 3' and 5' carbons to the sugars above and below it. The nitrogenous bases are held together by hydrogen bonds and the two strands run antiparallel to each other (I hope this was enough).

3. I would need the genotypes of the parents to perform a dihybrid cross.


I think he means the general ratio you need to remember for a dihybrid cross (ex. number:number:number:number)


It's "she." But yes, that's what I was looking for.
Your other answers look good!

UTF-8 U+6211 U+662F wrote:
platypusomelette wrote:
jxxu20 wrote:1. Nondisjunction occurs when pairs of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids fail to split during meiosis, which causes the gametes produced to have more or less than the normal number of chromosomes (23 for gametes). Extra or missing chromosomes in offspring (chromosomal aneuploidy) causes disorders such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and Klinefelter syndrome (XXY syndrome), to name a few.

2. DNA is in a double helix structure, or two strands of DNA intertwined around each other. A strand of DNA is made of subunits known as nucleotides, which are made up of a nitrogenous base (adenine which pairs with thymine; guanine with cytosine), a pentose (five-carbon) sugar, and a phosphate group which is attached to the 3' and 5' carbons to the sugars above and below it. The nitrogenous bases are held together by hydrogen bonds and the two strands run antiparallel to each other (I hope this was enough).

3. I would need the genotypes of the parents to perform a dihybrid cross.


I think he means the general ratio you need to remember for a dihybrid cross (ex. number:number:number:number)

It's been a while, but I think you're meant to assume both parents are heterogenous in both traits here.

(P.S. is the answer 9:3:3:1 ?)


Yep, that's correct!

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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby platypusomelette » September 8th, 2018, 4:18 pm

1. Why is mitochondrial DNA maternally linked?
2. Label the parts of this operon: Image
(don't label the top part that just says "operon"
3. Describe the function of each part.
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2019 events
anat: reg 4th
herp: reg 6th
genes: reg 5th
protein: reg 2nd
disease: reg 15th
fossils: reg 4th

past events
2016: a&p 1st, fossils 3rd
2017: a&p 3rd, herp 14th
2018: a&p 1st, microbe 8th, herp 13th :/
HELL YEA WE MADE STATES

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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby jxxu20 » September 10th, 2018, 1:33 pm

Mmm, I'll take a shot at this:

1. Mitochondrial DNA is maternally linked because only the nuclear region of the sperm cell meets the ovum. Sperm travels by using the energy generated by its mitochondria, which are located at the tail end of the cell. Hence, the mitochondria never make it to the ovum, so the zygote formed by the union of the gametes will only possess the mother's set of mtDNA.

2. I = lacI, P = promoter, O = operator, X = lacZ, Y = lacY, Z = lacA

3. lacI is a regulatory gene that codes for the lac repressor protein; the promoter is a sequence/region of DNA that tells RNA polymerase where to begin transcription; the operator is a region of DNA where the repressor can bind to and halt transcription; lacZ codes for beta-galactosidase (which breaks down lactose into glucose and galactose); lacY codes for galactoside permease (which allows the cell to import lactose); and lacA codes for galactoside transacetylase (whose function is not clearly understood).


I was sort of confused on questions 2 and 3, especially with the lettering on the diagram and all ... hope I gave you what you were looking for.
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby platypusomelette » October 20th, 2018, 10:57 am

jxxu20 wrote:Mmm, I'll take a shot at this:

1. Mitochondrial DNA is maternally linked because only the nuclear region of the sperm cell meets the ovum. Sperm travels by using the energy generated by its mitochondria, which are located at the tail end of the cell. Hence, the mitochondria never make it to the ovum, so the zygote formed by the union of the gametes will only possess the mother's set of mtDNA.

2. I = lacI, P = promoter, O = operator, X = lacZ, Y = lacY, Z = lacA

3. lacI is a regulatory gene that codes for the lac repressor protein; the promoter is a sequence/region of DNA that tells RNA polymerase where to begin transcription; the operator is a region of DNA where the repressor can bind to and halt transcription; lacZ codes for beta-galactosidase (which breaks down lactose into glucose and galactose); lacY codes for galactoside permease (which allows the cell to import lactose); and lacA codes for galactoside transacetylase (whose function is not clearly understood).


I was sort of confused on questions 2 and 3, especially with the lettering on the diagram and all ... hope I gave you what you were looking for.

Yo sorry for the late reply but yes that's correct. Your turn
island trash trees hs
2019 events
anat: reg 4th
herp: reg 6th
genes: reg 5th
protein: reg 2nd
disease: reg 15th
fossils: reg 4th

past events
2016: a&p 1st, fossils 3rd
2017: a&p 3rd, herp 14th
2018: a&p 1st, microbe 8th, herp 13th :/
HELL YEA WE MADE STATES

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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby jxxu20 » October 21st, 2018, 2:34 pm

Questions:

1. Colorblindness is an X-linked recessive disorder. A couple has 4 children -- 2 are unaffected, 1 is a carrier, and 1 is affected by colorblindness. What are the genotypes of the parents?

2. Dwarfism in humans is a dominant trait that is also lethal if an individual inherits two copies. Show the genotypes of a family where both parents are dwarfs and they have 2 children, where one is a dwarf and the other is not.

3a. Describe each of the following enzymes' role(s) in DNA replication:
- Topoisomerase
- Helicase
- Primase
- Ligase
3b. What is the difference between DNA polymerase I vs. DNA polymerase III?

4. Many eukaryotic genes have a __________ located 25-35 base pairs before the transcription site of the gene. What does this structure do?

5. What is a Barr body?

6. In a certain African population, 4 % of the population is born with sickle cell anemia (aa). What is the percentage of individuals who enjoy the selective advantage of the sickle-cell gene (increased resistance to malaria)? Assume that the population is in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium.
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby isotelus » November 3rd, 2018, 9:23 pm

Wow, these are good questions! Here's my best shot:

1. (assuming they are male) parent 1- X^B, X^b | parent 2- X^B, Y

2. Bb, Bb

3.a.i. controls winding of DNA

3.a.ii. breaks hydrogen bonds between nucleotides to form replication fork

3.a.iii. catalyzes synthesis and placement of primers

3.a.iv. fills gaps between Okazaki fragments

3.b. DNA polymerase I replaces the RNA primers
DNA polymerase III adds onto RNA primers

4. TATA boxes state where the sequence can be decoded. It initiates the transcription of the genes.

5. a dense inactive X chromosome that diagnoses the mammal as a female

6. 32%
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby jxxu20 » November 5th, 2018, 2:25 pm

Yup, all correct -- your turn!
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Events 2019: A&P, Heredity, Picture This, P&P


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