Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Test your knowledge of various Science Olympiad events.
amk578
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby amk578 » January 6th, 2019, 8:30 pm

platypusomelette wrote:1. What is the difference between a transversion and a transition?
2. Explain how RFLPs can be used to identify an individual.
3. What kinds of nucleotides are used in sanger sequencing?
4. What is the purpose of eukaryotic control elements?
5. Name some examples of prezygotic and postzygotic barriers.


Attempt
1. A transition mutation is where a base is changed to the base that matches its shape (think purines and pyrimidines, so like GCG could mutate to GCA because A and G are both purines). A transversion mutation is where a base is changed to be any base, regardless of shape, so GCG could mutate to even be GCC, even though G is a purine and C is a pyrimidine.
2. I think it's because DNA is unique to each person, restriction enzymes "cut" out genes that are likely to differentiate the individual's DNA from others.
3. Dideoxynucleotides (ddNTP)
4. I was confused by this question, but I think RNA polymerase binds to the control elements to initiate transcription.
5. Prezygotic barriers: Isolation? (i.e. mechanical or habitat isolation). Postzygotic barriers: Hybrid sterility (where the offspring is not fertile) or hybrid breakdown (the F1 generation is fertile but the generation following, the F2 generation, is not fertile)
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2018 - anatomy (1/2), crime (3/15), road (1/6)
2019 - anatomy (1/1), disease(2/2), heredity (1/1), road (1/5)

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platypusomelette
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby platypusomelette » January 10th, 2019, 7:16 am

amk578 wrote:
platypusomelette wrote:1. What is the difference between a transversion and a transition?
2. Explain how RFLPs can be used to identify an individual.
3. What kinds of nucleotides are used in sanger sequencing?
4. What is the purpose of eukaryotic control elements?
5. Name some examples of prezygotic and postzygotic barriers.


Attempt
1. A transition mutation is where a base is changed to the base that matches its shape (think purines and pyrimidines, so like GCG could mutate to GCA because A and G are both purines). A transversion mutation is where a base is changed to be any base, regardless of shape, so GCG could mutate to even be GCC, even though G is a purine and C is a pyrimidine.
2. I think it's because DNA is unique to each person, restriction enzymes "cut" out genes that are likely to differentiate the individual's DNA from others.
3. Dideoxynucleotides (ddNTP)
4. I was confused by this question, but I think RNA polymerase binds to the control elements to initiate transcription.
5. Prezygotic barriers: Isolation? (i.e. mechanical or habitat isolation). Postzygotic barriers: Hybrid sterility (where the offspring is not fertile) or hybrid breakdown (the F1 generation is fertile but the generation following, the F2 generation, is not fertile)


Yup correct, except that transitions are when a purine changes into another purine (G to A) while transversions are pyrimidines to pyrimidines (T to C) . For 3 I was looking for control elements help RNA polymerase bind to the promoter and initiate transcription . Your turn
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2019 events
anat: reg 4th
herp: reg 6th
genes: reg 5th
protein: reg 2nd
disease: reg 15th
fossils: reg 4th

past events
2016: a&p 1st, fossils 3rd
2017: a&p 3rd, herp 14th
2018: a&p 1st, microbe 8th, herp 13th :/
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby amk578 » January 10th, 2019, 6:57 pm

1. What arises from spermogenesis and oogenesis?
2. What is the function of DNA polymerase 3?
3. The extension phase of PCR occurs at what temperature?
4. What are epigenetics?
5. What is hybridization, in regards to DNA microarrays?
6. What is synapsis and what structure does it form?
7. What is pleiotropy and give an example?
8. What are lipoplexes?
Events (r/s)

2018 - anatomy (1/2), crime (3/15), road (1/6)
2019 - anatomy (1/1), disease(2/2), heredity (1/1), road (1/5)

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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby platypusomelette » January 12th, 2019, 2:07 pm

amk578 wrote:1. What arises from spermogenesis and oogenesis?
2. What is the function of DNA polymerase 3?
3. The extension phase of PCR occurs at what temperature?
4. What are epigenetics?
5. What is hybridization, in regards to DNA microarrays?
6. What is synapsis and what structure does it form?
7. What is pleiotropy and give an example?
8. What are lipoplexes?


1. Spermogenesis = sperm, oogenesis = ova
2. Carries out all main elongation during DNA replication in prokaryotes, goes 5' to 3'
3. 70 C
4. (guessing) alterations to gene expression that are passed down hereditarily. Would be cool if u could list examples of this cuz idk :')
5. Complementary binding of two single stranded DNA pieces to create one double stranded piece
6. Linkage of two sets of homologous chromosomes (two sister chromatids each) where alleles are swapped. The two chromosomes are stuck together by a synaptonemal complex, they cross over at chiasmata, and the mass of four sister chromatids is called a bivalent / tetrad.
7. An allele that produces multiple phenotypic effects. For example the cystic fibrosis mutation will both make your lungs suck and your skin salty.
8. No idea
island trash trees hs
2019 events
anat: reg 4th
herp: reg 6th
genes: reg 5th
protein: reg 2nd
disease: reg 15th
fossils: reg 4th

past events
2016: a&p 1st, fossils 3rd
2017: a&p 3rd, herp 14th
2018: a&p 1st, microbe 8th, herp 13th :/
HELL YEA WE MADE STATES

amk578
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby amk578 » January 12th, 2019, 9:49 pm

platypusomelette wrote:
amk578 wrote:1. What arises from spermogenesis and oogenesis?
2. What is the function of DNA polymerase 3?
3. The extension phase of PCR occurs at what temperature?
4. What are epigenetics?
5. What is hybridization, in regards to DNA microarrays?
6. What is synapsis and what structure does it form?
7. What is pleiotropy and give an example?
8. What are lipoplexes?


1. Spermogenesis = sperm, oogenesis = ova
2. Carries out all main elongation during DNA replication in prokaryotes, goes 5' to 3'
3. 70 C
4. (guessing) alterations to gene expression that are passed down hereditarily. Would be cool if u could list examples of this cuz idk :')
5. Complementary binding of two single stranded DNA pieces to create one double stranded piece
6. Linkage of two sets of homologous chromosomes (two sister chromatids each) where alleles are swapped. The two chromosomes are stuck together by a synaptonemal complex, they cross over at chiasmata, and the mass of four sister chromatids is called a bivalent / tetrad.
7. An allele that produces multiple phenotypic effects. For example the cystic fibrosis mutation will both make your lungs suck and your skin salty.
8. No idea


1. I was looking for the exact numbers of each gamete.Spermogenesis= 4 mature sperm cells, Oogenesis= 1 egg and 3 polar bodies
2. Looks good
3. Correct
4. That looks correct, I was just looking for a simple explanation/definition
5. Not exactly, again I was looking just in terms of its use in microarrays so hybridization is the process in which the cDNA molecules bind to the DNA probes in the slide
6. Correct
7. Correct
8. A lipoplex is a non-viral gene therapy vector. It's a combination of nucleic acid and lipids, and it's most common use is the transfer of DNA to cancer cells

Your turn
Events (r/s)

2018 - anatomy (1/2), crime (3/15), road (1/6)
2019 - anatomy (1/1), disease(2/2), heredity (1/1), road (1/5)

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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby platypusomelette » January 15th, 2019, 11:04 am

amk578 wrote:1. I was looking for the exact numbers of each gamete.Spermogenesis= 4 mature sperm cells, Oogenesis= 1 egg and 3 polar bodies
2. Looks good
3. Correct
4. That looks correct, I was just looking for a simple explanation/definition
5. Not exactly, again I was looking just in terms of its use in microarrays so hybridization is the process in which the cDNA molecules bind to the DNA probes in the slide
6. Correct
7. Correct
8. A lipoplex is a non-viral gene therapy vector. It's a combination of nucleic acid and lipids, and it's most common use is the transfer of DNA to cancer cells

Your turn


1. What is the name of the process that occurs during prophase I of meiosis?
2. What is Mendel's law of independent assortment?
3. Name three differences between DNA and RNA.
4. List three types of noncoding RNA (doesn't make protein) and explain their function.
5. How is termination of transcription done in eukaryotes?
6. On what end of the tRNA does the amino acid attach to - the upper, open part or the lower, closed part?
7. How is translation initiated in eukaryotes? How is it initiated in prokaryotes?
8. What is Chargaff's rule?
island trash trees hs
2019 events
anat: reg 4th
herp: reg 6th
genes: reg 5th
protein: reg 2nd
disease: reg 15th
fossils: reg 4th

past events
2016: a&p 1st, fossils 3rd
2017: a&p 3rd, herp 14th
2018: a&p 1st, microbe 8th, herp 13th :/
HELL YEA WE MADE STATES

amk578
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby amk578 » January 15th, 2019, 12:53 pm

platypusomelette wrote:1. What is the name of the process that occurs during prophase I of meiosis?
2. What is Mendel's law of independent assortment?
3. Name three differences between DNA and RNA.
4. List three types of noncoding RNA (doesn't make protein) and explain their function.
5. How is termination of transcription done in eukaryotes?
6. On what end of the tRNA does the amino acid attach to - the upper, open part or the lower, closed part?
7. How is translation initiated in eukaryotes? How is it initiated in prokaryotes?
8. What is Chargaff's rule?


Answer
1. Crossing-over (AKA synapsis)
2. States that genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other
3. DNA: Has a deoxyribose sugar, has a thymine nitrogenous base, double-stranded. RNA: Has a ribose sugar, has a uracil nitrogenous base, single-stranded.
4. crRNA (CRISPR RNA) gives a resistance to parasites by targeting their DNA. siRNA (small interfering RNA) is involved in gene regulation. lncRNA (long coding RNA) regulates gene transcription
5. I think RNA polymerase binds to the promoter to initiate transcription
6. Upper, open part?
7. not sure
8. Adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine. Also, in a DNA strand, there is the same amount of A as T and C as G.
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2018 - anatomy (1/2), crime (3/15), road (1/6)
2019 - anatomy (1/1), disease(2/2), heredity (1/1), road (1/5)

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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby platypusomelette » January 17th, 2019, 5:28 am

amk578 wrote:
platypusomelette wrote:1. What is the name of the process that occurs during prophase I of meiosis?
2. What is Mendel's law of independent assortment?
3. Name three differences between DNA and RNA.
4. List three types of noncoding RNA (doesn't make protein) and explain their function.
5. How is termination of transcription done in eukaryotes?
6. On what end of the tRNA does the amino acid attach to - the upper, open part or the lower, closed part?
7. How is translation initiated in eukaryotes? How is it initiated in prokaryotes?
8. What is Chargaff's rule?


Answer
1. Crossing-over (AKA synapsis)
2. States that genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other
3. DNA: Has a deoxyribose sugar, has a thymine nitrogenous base, double-stranded. RNA: Has a ribose sugar, has a uracil nitrogenous base, single-stranded.
4. crRNA (CRISPR RNA) gives a resistance to parasites by targeting their DNA. siRNA (small interfering RNA) is involved in gene regulation. lncRNA (long coding RNA) regulates gene transcription
5. I think RNA polymerase binds to the promoter to initiate transcription
6. Upper, open part?
7. not sure
8. Adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine. Also, in a DNA strand, there is the same amount of A as T and C as G.


1. Correct
2. Correct
3. Correct
4. Correct
5. transcription is terminated when the polyadenylation signal is read, which creates the poly A tail. It signals nucleases to cut the RNA from the polymerase, but the polymerase continues creating RNA for a short period until the nucleases catch up to it
6. Correct
7. The small subunit of the ribosome attaches to a methionine tRNA and together they recognize a part of the mRNA upstream of the AUG. In eukaryotes they stick to the 5' cap and slide down, in prokaryotes they stick to a sequence called the shine-dalgarno sequence and slide down. Then the large subunit binds
8. Correct


Nice! your turn
island trash trees hs
2019 events
anat: reg 4th
herp: reg 6th
genes: reg 5th
protein: reg 2nd
disease: reg 15th
fossils: reg 4th

past events
2016: a&p 1st, fossils 3rd
2017: a&p 3rd, herp 14th
2018: a&p 1st, microbe 8th, herp 13th :/
HELL YEA WE MADE STATES

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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby amk578 » January 21st, 2019, 9:30 am

platypusomelette wrote:1. Correct
2. Correct
3. Correct
4. Correct
5. transcription is terminated when the polyadenylation signal is read, which creates the poly A tail. It signals nucleases to cut the RNA from the polymerase, but the polymerase continues creating RNA for a short period until the nucleases catch up to it
6. Correct
7. The small subunit of the ribosome attaches to a methionine tRNA and together they recognize a part of the mRNA upstream of the AUG. In eukaryotes they stick to the 5' cap and slide down, in prokaryotes they stick to a sequence called the shine-dalgarno sequence and slide down. Then the large subunit binds
8. Correct


Nice! your turn


Questions
1. A nucleosome has how many histone proteins?
2. Due to its shape, mitochondrial DNA resembles [eurkaryotic or prokaryotic] DNA?
3. What is the correct strand of base pairs corresponding to 5' AATGCAGGA 3' following replication?
4. In which parts of the cell do replication, transcription, and translation occur?
5. What was Phoebus Levene's contribution towards the discovery of the DNA molecule?
Events (r/s)

2018 - anatomy (1/2), crime (3/15), road (1/6)
2019 - anatomy (1/1), disease(2/2), heredity (1/1), road (1/5)

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platypusomelette
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby platypusomelette » January 23rd, 2019, 1:38 pm

amk578 wrote:
Questions
1. A nucleosome has how many histone proteins?
2. Due to its shape, mitochondrial DNA resembles [eurkaryotic or prokaryotic] DNA?
3. What is the correct strand of base pairs corresponding to 5' AATGCAGGA 3' following replication?
4. In which parts of the cell do replication, transcription, and translation occur?
5. What was Phoebus Levene's contribution towards the discovery of the DNA molecule?


answers
1. 8?
2. prokaryotic
3. TTACGTCCT
4. replication is in the nucleus, transcription is also in the nucleus, translation is in the ribosome
5. dunno
island trash trees hs
2019 events
anat: reg 4th
herp: reg 6th
genes: reg 5th
protein: reg 2nd
disease: reg 15th
fossils: reg 4th

past events
2016: a&p 1st, fossils 3rd
2017: a&p 3rd, herp 14th
2018: a&p 1st, microbe 8th, herp 13th :/
HELL YEA WE MADE STATES

amk578
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby amk578 » January 23rd, 2019, 1:47 pm

platypusomelette wrote:
amk578 wrote:
Questions
1. A nucleosome has how many histone proteins?
2. Due to its shape, mitochondrial DNA resembles [eurkaryotic or prokaryotic] DNA?
3. What is the correct strand of base pairs corresponding to 5' AATGCAGGA 3' following replication?
4. In which parts of the cell do replication, transcription, and translation occur?
5. What was Phoebus Levene's contribution towards the discovery of the DNA molecule?


answers
1. 8?
2. prokaryotic
3. TTACGTCCT
4. replication is in the nucleus, transcription is also in the nucleus, translation is in the ribosome
5. dunno


1. Correct
2. Correct
3. Correct
4. Correct
5. Levene found that the DNA molecule is made of three main things (the four bases, sugar, and phosphate)


Your turn!
Events (r/s)

2018 - anatomy (1/2), crime (3/15), road (1/6)
2019 - anatomy (1/1), disease(2/2), heredity (1/1), road (1/5)

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platypusomelette
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby platypusomelette » January 28th, 2019, 4:07 pm

amk578 wrote:Your turn!


1. Insects use the X0 chromosome system, where XX = female and X = male. Eggs will always have one X chromosome. Which gamete determines the sex of the zygote?
2. What are the five basic chromosome mutations? What happens in each?
island trash trees hs
2019 events
anat: reg 4th
herp: reg 6th
genes: reg 5th
protein: reg 2nd
disease: reg 15th
fossils: reg 4th

past events
2016: a&p 1st, fossils 3rd
2017: a&p 3rd, herp 14th
2018: a&p 1st, microbe 8th, herp 13th :/
HELL YEA WE MADE STATES

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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby jxxu20 » January 29th, 2019, 1:58 pm

Answer
1. The sperm cell of the male determines the gender (it either has -- or does not have -- two Xs, thus determining whether the offspring is male or female).

2. (Not sure about this one):
a. Deletion -- when a gene gets deleted from a chromosome
b. Duplication -- when a gene has an extra copy on a chromosome
c. Insertion -- when the number of DNA bases in a gene changes because a piece of DNA is added
d. Inversion -- when the order of genes on a chromosome changes
e. Translocation -- when a gene is transferred from one chromosome to another
"Perhaps one did not want to be loved so much as to be understood." -- George Orwell, 1984

Events 2019: A&P, Heredity, Picture This, P&P

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platypusomelette
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby platypusomelette » February 3rd, 2019, 6:20 pm

jxxu20 wrote:
Answer
1. The sperm cell of the male determines the gender (it either has -- or does not have -- two Xs, thus determining whether the offspring is male or female).

2. (Not sure about this one):
a. Deletion -- when a gene gets deleted from a chromosome
b. Duplication -- when a gene has an extra copy on a chromosome
c. Insertion -- when the number of DNA bases in a gene changes because a piece of DNA is added
d. Inversion -- when the order of genes on a chromosome changes
e. Translocation -- when a gene is transferred from one chromosome to another


Correct, your turn
island trash trees hs
2019 events
anat: reg 4th
herp: reg 6th
genes: reg 5th
protein: reg 2nd
disease: reg 15th
fossils: reg 4th

past events
2016: a&p 1st, fossils 3rd
2017: a&p 3rd, herp 14th
2018: a&p 1st, microbe 8th, herp 13th :/
HELL YEA WE MADE STATES

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platypusomelette
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Postby platypusomelette » February 12th, 2019, 11:29 am

Aight i guess im gonna ask some questions
1. For initiation of transcription to occur, assistant proteins need to bind to RNA polymerase for it to attach to the promoter. What are these protein/s called in prokaryotes and eukaryotes respectively?
2. Polymerase makes ______ supercoils behind it and _______ supercoils ahead of it.
3. Describe the difference in transcription termination between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
4. Describe how lncRNAs are involved in X chromosome inactivation.
5. How is catabolite activator protein / CAP involved in operon regulation?
island trash trees hs
2019 events
anat: reg 4th
herp: reg 6th
genes: reg 5th
protein: reg 2nd
disease: reg 15th
fossils: reg 4th

past events
2016: a&p 1st, fossils 3rd
2017: a&p 3rd, herp 14th
2018: a&p 1st, microbe 8th, herp 13th :/
HELL YEA WE MADE STATES


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