Anatomy and Physiology B/C

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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby donutsandcupcakes » December 26th, 2018, 11:42 am

Anomaly wrote:
donutsandcupcakes wrote:I am guessing it is my turn...

1. What is the flow of lymph?
2. Right Lymphatic duct empties into the ___________?
3. How long do red blood cells live?
4. What are the functions of the excretory system?

hmm lets try this...

Answer
1. Interstitial fluid -> lymph -> lymph capillary -> afferent lymph vessel -> lymph node -> efferent lymph vessel -> lymph truck -> lymph duct (right lymphatic duct or thoracic duct) -> subclavian vein -> blood -> interstitial fluid
2. Right subclavian vein?
3. ~120 days (about 4 months)
4. Excretes toxins and nitrogenous waste, regulates levels of many chemicals in blood, maintains water balance, and helps regulate blood pressure


oof prob all wrong but whatever man

To me, they look right. Your turn

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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby platypusomelette » December 27th, 2018, 6:31 pm

1. What is the purpose of the chordae tendineae / papillary muscles in the heart?
2. What is the purpose of the bachmann's bundle?
3. What is the name of the elastic tissue layer found in conducting and distributing / large and medium arteries? Which of them have a more visible layer?
4. Explain the differences between the three types of capillaries.
5. Describe the steps to blood clot formation after the initial internal or external mechanism is complete, or once it gets to factor X.
6. Two main lymphatic ducts collect lymph from each side of the body. What are they and what side do they cover?
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby jxxu20 » December 28th, 2018, 11:28 am

[hide]1. The chordae tendineae (which are attached to the papillary muscle) anchor the AV valves in place while the heart is pumping

2. Bachmann's bundle conducts impulses generated by the SA node to the left atrium.

3. The adventitia (tunica externa) of arteries contains elastic tissue/elastin and is more visible in larger arteries. It could be the internal + external laminae too (if I'm not mistaken), so I'm not sure about this question.

4. Continuous capillaries have an uninterrupted endothelial lining with small intracellular clefts; fenestrated capillaries have pores in their endothelial cells; sinusoidal capillaries have pores similar to those of fenestrated capillaries as well as a discontinuous basement membrane.

5. Once factor X has been activated, prothrombinase converts factor II, the inactive enzyme prothrombin, into the active enzyme thrombin. Thrombin will convert factor I (insoluble fibrinogen) into soluble fibrin protein strands; then, factor XIII will stabilize the blood clot.

6. The thoracic duct drains the entire left side of the body as well as the lower right quadrant; the right lymphatic duct drains the upper right quadrant of the body.[/hide]

Edit: I can't seem to use the hide function on my computer. Tips? Thanks.
Last edited by jxxu20 on December 29th, 2018, 8:48 am, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby Anomaly » December 28th, 2018, 1:42 pm

jxxu20 wrote:
Answer
1. The chordae tendineae (which are attached to the papillary muscle) anchor the AV valves in place while the heart is pumping

2. Bachmann's bundle conducts impulses generated by the SA node to the left atrium.

3. The adventitia (tunica externa) of arteries contains elastic tissue/elastin and is more visible in arteries. It could be the internal + external laminae too (if I'm not mistaken), so I'm not sure about this question.

4. Continuous capillaries have an uninterrupted endothelial lining with small intracellular clefts; fenestrated capillaries have pores in their endothelial cells; sinusoidal capillaries have pores similar to those of fenestrated capillaries as well as a discontinuous basement membrane.

5. Once factor X has been activated, prothrombinase converts factor II, the inactive enzyme prothrombin, into the active enzyme thrombin. Thrombin will convert factor I (insoluble fibrinogen) into soluble fibrin protein strands; then, factor XIII will stabilize the blood clot.

6. The thoracic duct drains the entire left side of the body as well as the lower right quadrant; the right lymphatic duct drains the upper right quadrant of the body.


Edit: I can't seem to use the hide function on my computer. Tips? Thanks.

you forgot to do this

Code: Select all

[hide]Answer|1. The chordae tendineae (which are attached to the papillary muscle) anchor the AV valves in place while the heart is pumping

2. Bachmann's bundle conducts impulses generated by the SA node to the left atrium.

3. The adventitia (tunica externa) of arteries contains elastic tissue/elastin and is more visible in arteries.  It could be the internal + external laminae too (if I'm not mistaken), so I'm not sure about this question.

4. Continuous capillaries have an uninterrupted endothelial lining with small intracellular clefts; fenestrated capillaries have pores in their endothelial cells; sinusoidal capillaries have pores similar to those of fenestrated capillaries as well as a discontinuous basement membrane.

5. Once factor X has been activated, prothrombinase converts factor II, the inactive enzyme prothrombin, into the active enzyme thrombin.  Thrombin will convert factor I (insoluble fibrinogen) into soluble fibrin protein strands; then, factor XIII will stabilize the blood clot.

6. The thoracic duct drains the entire left side of the body as well as the lower right quadrant; the right lymphatic duct drains the upper right quadrant of the body.[/hide]

Edit: I can't seem to use the hide function on my computer.  Tips?  Thanks.
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby isotelus » January 3rd, 2019, 3:50 pm

jxxu20 wrote:[hide]1. The chordae tendineae (which are attached to the papillary muscle) anchor the AV valves in place while the heart is pumping

2. Bachmann's bundle conducts impulses generated by the SA node to the left atrium.

3. The adventitia (tunica externa) of arteries contains elastic tissue/elastin and is more visible in larger arteries. It could be the internal + external laminae too (if I'm not mistaken), so I'm not sure about this question.

4. Continuous capillaries have an uninterrupted endothelial lining with small intracellular clefts; fenestrated capillaries have pores in their endothelial cells; sinusoidal capillaries have pores similar to those of fenestrated capillaries as well as a discontinuous basement membrane.

5. Once factor X has been activated, prothrombinase converts factor II, the inactive enzyme prothrombin, into the active enzyme thrombin. Thrombin will convert factor I (insoluble fibrinogen) into soluble fibrin protein strands; then, factor XIII will stabilize the blood clot.

6. The thoracic duct drains the entire left side of the body as well as the lower right quadrant; the right lymphatic duct drains the upper right quadrant of the body.[/hide]

Edit: I can't seem to use the hide function on my computer. Tips? Thanks.

I think you forgot the bar to show whatever comes in the hide box before being clicked. So if I wanted to hide something, I would put a "Answer: | (your answer)" in the hides. The bar is shift+backslash (above the enter key).
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby platypusomelette » January 5th, 2019, 10:39 am

jxxu20 wrote:[hide]1. The chordae tendineae (which are attached to the papillary muscle) anchor the AV valves in place while the heart is pumping

2. Bachmann's bundle conducts impulses generated by the SA node to the left atrium.

3. The adventitia (tunica externa) of arteries contains elastic tissue/elastin and is more visible in larger arteries. It could be the internal + external laminae too (if I'm not mistaken), so I'm not sure about this question.

4. Continuous capillaries have an uninterrupted endothelial lining with small intracellular clefts; fenestrated capillaries have pores in their endothelial cells; sinusoidal capillaries have pores similar to those of fenestrated capillaries as well as a discontinuous basement membrane.

5. Once factor X has been activated, prothrombinase converts factor II, the inactive enzyme prothrombin, into the active enzyme thrombin. Thrombin will convert factor I (insoluble fibrinogen) into soluble fibrin protein strands; then, factor XIII will stabilize the blood clot.

6. The thoracic duct drains the entire left side of the body as well as the lower right quadrant; the right lymphatic duct drains the upper right quadrant of the body.[/hide]

Edit: I can't seem to use the hide function on my computer. Tips? Thanks.

Yup looks correct, and you're right about internal / external lamina. Your turn
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby platypusomelette » January 10th, 2019, 1:26 pm

Bumpo
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby amk578 » January 10th, 2019, 6:43 pm

I guess I'll ask questions, if that's okay.

1. What are the organs of the excretory system?
2. List three things that leads to a decreased affinity for O2 (think oxygen dissociation curve).
3. What is the largest lymphatic organ?
4. What are the lymphatic capillaries in the small intestine? What do they absorb?
5. What is the pH of blood? How about urine?
6. List three differences between arteries and veins.
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby platypusomelette » January 12th, 2019, 2:21 pm

amk578 wrote:I guess I'll ask questions, if that's okay.

1. What are the organs of the excretory system?
2. List three things that leads to a decreased affinity for O2 (think oxygen dissociation curve).
3. What is the largest lymphatic organ?
4. What are the lymphatic capillaries in the small intestine? What do they absorb?
5. What is the pH of blood? How about urine?
6. List three differences between arteries and veins.


1. Kidney, ureters? bladder, urethra?
2. High CO2 concentration, acidic environment, and 2,3-BPG
3. Spleen
4. Lacteals inside every villus, absorb fats
5. 7.4? and idk urine
6. Arteries have a thicker tunica media, smaller lumen, and veins appear flat under a microscope
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby amk578 » January 12th, 2019, 9:23 pm

platypusomelette wrote:
amk578 wrote:I guess I'll ask questions, if that's okay.

1. What are the organs of the excretory system?
2. List three things that leads to a decreased affinity for O2 (think oxygen dissociation curve).
3. What is the largest lymphatic organ?
4. What are the lymphatic capillaries in the small intestine? What do they absorb?
5. What is the pH of blood? How about urine?
6. List three differences between arteries and veins.


1. Kidney, ureters? bladder, urethra?
2. High CO2 concentration, acidic environment, and 2,3-BPG
3. Spleen
4. Lacteals inside every villus, absorb fats
5. 7.4? and idk urine
6. Arteries have a thicker tunica media, smaller lumen, and veins appear flat under a microscope


1. Not really, I was looking for the excretory system as a whole. As in: the lungs, the urinary system, the liver, and the skin.
2. Correct
3. Correct
4. Correct
5. 7.4 is correct, and the pH of urine is about 6
6. Correct

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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby platypusomelette » January 16th, 2019, 4:29 am

amk578 wrote:1. Not really, I was looking for the excretory system as a whole. As in: the lungs, the urinary system, the liver, and the skin.
2. Correct
3. Correct
4. Correct
5. 7.4 is correct, and the pH of urine is about 6
6. Correct

Your turn


1. Name two possible treatments for kidney stones.
2. What are the four (really five) steps in the cardiac cycle?
3. What specialized cells are found in capillaries and control their constriction / dilation?
4. What do starling's forces describe?
5. What happens in lymph nodes / what is their purpose?
6. What is special about fetal hemoglobin?
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby isotelus » January 16th, 2019, 3:14 pm

platypusomelette wrote:
amk578 wrote:1. Not really, I was looking for the excretory system as a whole. As in: the lungs, the urinary system, the liver, and the skin.
2. Correct
3. Correct
4. Correct
5. 7.4 is correct, and the pH of urine is about 6
6. Correct

Your turn


1. Name two possible treatments for kidney stones.
2. What are the four (really five) steps in the cardiac cycle?
3. What specialized cells are found in capillaries and control their constriction / dilation?
4. What do starling's forces describe?
5. What happens in lymph nodes / what is their purpose?
6. What is special about fetal hemoglobin?

Answers:
1. drinking water, shock wave lithotripsy
2. atria fills, ventricle fills, atria pump, ventricles pump, blood exits ventricles
3. pericytes
4. how oncotic and hydrostatic pressure work against each other.
5. they have t cells along with other lymphocytes and check antigens presented to them
6. has higher affinity to oxygen than adults hemoglobin, so growing fetus can access mother's bloodstream
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby platypusomelette » January 17th, 2019, 5:35 am

isotelus wrote:
Answers:
1. drinking water, shock wave lithotripsy
2. atria fills, ventricle fills, atria pump, ventricles pump, blood exits ventricles
3. pericytes
4. how oncotic and hydrostatic pressure work against each other.
5. they have t cells along with other lymphocytes and check antigens presented to them
6. has higher affinity to oxygen than adults hemoglobin, so growing fetus can access mother's bloodstream


1. Correct
2. Sorta correct. The formal stages are: 1. isovolumic relaxation, where you just emptied the heart and all the chambers are empty, all the valves are closed. 2. ventricular filling, where the ventricles relax and atrioventricular valves open, which fills the whole heart with blood. 2b. atrial systole, where the atria contract and empty their blood into the ventricles to further fill them. 3. isovolumic contraction, where you just close your atrioventricular valves. 4. ventricular ejection, where the ventricles contract and the semilunar valves open, which pushes all the blood out of the heart.
3. Correct
4. Correct
5. Correct
6. Correct. More specifically it's so the fetal hemoglobin can pick up oxygen from the extremely oxygen-rich placenta


Nice job, your turn
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby isotelus » January 17th, 2019, 10:57 pm

platypusomelette wrote:
isotelus wrote:
Answers:
1. drinking water, shock wave lithotripsy
2. atria fills, ventricle fills, atria pump, ventricles pump, blood exits ventricles
3. pericytes
4. how oncotic and hydrostatic pressure work against each other.
5. they have t cells along with other lymphocytes and check antigens presented to them
6. has higher affinity to oxygen than adults hemoglobin, so growing fetus can access mother's bloodstream


1. Correct
2. Sorta correct. The formal stages are: 1. isovolumic relaxation, where you just emptied the heart and all the chambers are empty, all the valves are closed. 2. ventricular filling, where the ventricles relax and atrioventricular valves open, which fills the whole heart with blood. 2b. atrial systole, where the atria contract and empty their blood into the ventricles to further fill them. 3. isovolumic contraction, where you just close your atrioventricular valves. 4. ventricular ejection, where the ventricles contract and the semilunar valves open, which pushes all the blood out of the heart.
3. Correct
4. Correct
5. Correct
6. Correct. More specifically it's so the fetal hemoglobin can pick up oxygen from the extremely oxygen-rich placenta


Nice job, your turn

Ok, thanks!

Questions:
1. In the aortic arch, there are special cells called baroreceptors. These connect to a nerve which sends up signals to the medulla oblongata- what is the name of this exact nerve for the aortic arch?
2. What in the heart allows for coordinated contraction of the anterior papillary muscle?
3. Fibrin is well known for reinforcing platelet clots. But which clotting factor forms the cross links of the fibrin, reinforcing that as well?
4. What is the name of the hypotenuse of the Triangle of Koch, and where is this located?
5. A man has the blood type of iBiB, and is homozygous for the rH factor. He has a child with a woman with the blood type of iAiB, who is also homozygous for the rH factor. What is the percent chance that their child will be AB+?
6. What is the most common cofactor needed for the next clotting factor activation?
7. What are the two main cardiovascular centers?
8. Define the RAAS and how it regulates blood pressure.
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby amk578 » January 18th, 2019, 10:05 am

isotelus wrote:Ok, thanks!

Questions:
1. In the aortic arch, there are special cells called baroreceptors. These connect to a nerve which sends up signals to the medulla oblongata- what is the name of this exact nerve for the aortic arch?
2. What in the heart allows for coordinated contraction of the anterior papillary muscle?
3. Fibrin is well known for reinforcing platelet clots. But which clotting factor forms the cross links of the fibrin, reinforcing that as well?
4. What is the name of the hypotenuse of the Triangle of Koch, and where is this located?
5. A man has the blood type of iBiB, and is homozygous for the rH factor. He has a child with a woman with the blood type of iAiB, who is also homozygous for the rH factor. What is the percent chance that their child will be AB+?
6. What is the most common cofactor needed for the next clotting factor activation?
7. What are the two main cardiovascular centers?
8. Define the RAAS and how it regulates blood pressure.


Probably got these all wrong
1. Vagus nerve??
2. Chordae tendineae
3. Factor XIII (fibrin stabilizing factor)
4. No clue
5. 50%
6. Thrombin?
7. In the medulla are the accelerator and inhibitor centers
8. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the kidneys regulates blood pressure because Angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction that leads to an increased blood pressure.
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