Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Test your knowledge of various Science Olympiad events.
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isotelus
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby isotelus » January 19th, 2019, 10:31 pm

amk578 wrote:
isotelus wrote:Ok, thanks!

Questions:
1. In the aortic arch, there are special cells called baroreceptors. These connect to a nerve which sends up signals to the medulla oblongata- what is the name of this exact nerve for the aortic arch?
2. What in the heart allows for coordinated contraction of the anterior papillary muscle?
3. Fibrin is well known for reinforcing platelet clots. But which clotting factor forms the cross links of the fibrin, reinforcing that as well?
4. What is the name of the hypotenuse of the Triangle of Koch, and where is this located?
5. A man has the blood type of iBiB, and is homozygous for the rH factor. He has a child with a woman with the blood type of iAiB, who is also homozygous for the rH factor. What is the percent chance that their child will be AB+?
6. What is the most common cofactor needed for the next clotting factor activation?
7. What are the two main cardiovascular centers?
8. Define the RAAS and how it regulates blood pressure.


Probably got these all wrong
1. Vagus nerve??
2. Chordae tendineae
3. Factor XIII (fibrin stabilizing factor)
4. No clue
5. 50%
6. Thrombin?
7. In the medulla are the accelerator and inhibitor centers
8. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the kidneys regulates blood pressure because Angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction that leads to an increased blood pressure.

Sorry for the late response!
1. Yes
2. No, it's moderator bands. Chordae tendineae help to stabilize valves while these have branches that cause for more synchronized conduction.
3. Yes
4. It's a triangular structure in the right atrium, with it's boundaries being the coronary sinus orifice, tendon of Todaro, and septal leaflet of the right atrioventricular valve. The longest side is the Tendon of Todaro.
5. Yes
6. Close, that's actually just the last factor before fibrinogen is activated to fibrin. The correct answer is Factor IV, calcium ions
7. I guess that could be counted right, but in actuality the cardioacelerator and cardiodecelerator/inhibitor make up the cardiovascular center, the other one is the vasomotor center.
8. Yes

Go ahead, your turn!
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amk578
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby amk578 » January 21st, 2019, 9:17 am

isotelus wrote:Sorry for the late response!
1. Yes
2. No, it's moderator bands. Chordae tendineae help to stabilize valves while these have branches that cause for more synchronized conduction.
3. Yes
4. It's a triangular structure in the right atrium, with it's boundaries being the coronary sinus orifice, tendon of Todaro, and septal leaflet of the right atrioventricular valve. The longest side is the Tendon of Todaro.
5. Yes
6. Close, that's actually just the last factor before fibrinogen is activated to fibrin. The correct answer is Factor IV, calcium ions
7. I guess that could be counted right, but in actuality the cardioacelerator and cardiodecelerator/inhibitor make up the cardiovascular center, the other one is the vasomotor center.
8. Yes

Go ahead, your turn!


Questions
1. Name two effects of caffeine on the cardiovascular system.
2. What ABO blood type is considered the "universal recipient"?
3. What is the innermost layer of the heart and what type of epithelium does it consist of?
4. What is the function of sinusoidal capillaries?
5. What hormone helps in the maturation of T cells?
6. The right lymphatic duct receives lymph from what three lymph trunks?
7. What are the layers of the ureter from internal to external?
8. What nitrogenous waste is produced in the muscles?
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2018 - anatomy (1/2), crime (3/15), road (1/6)
2019 - anatomy (1/1), disease(2/2), heredity (1/1), road (1/5)

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farmerjoe279
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby farmerjoe279 » January 23rd, 2019, 7:25 am

Answers
1. Increase heart rate, increase blood pressure?
2. AB
3. Endocardium, endothelium cells?
4. What is the function of sinusoidal capillaries?
5. Thymosin
6. Jugular, Subclavian, bronchomedsomething trunk (I forgot the last one :P)
7. Fibrous, Muscular, mucosa
8. Creatinine?


Which of the following is a primary lymphatic organ?
a) Spleen
b) Thymus
c) Lymph nodes
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amk578
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby amk578 » January 23rd, 2019, 9:51 am

farmerjoe279 wrote:
Answers
1. Increase heart rate, increase blood pressure?
2. AB
3. Endocardium, endothelium cells?
4. What is the function of sinusoidal capillaries?
5. Thymosin
6. Jugular, Subclavian, bronchomedsomething trunk (I forgot the last one :P)
7. Fibrous, Muscular, mucosa
8. Creatinine?



1. Correct
2. Correct
3. Endocardium is correct, but I was looking for simple squamous epithelium for the second part.
4. Sinusoidal capillaries decrease blood flow rate to allow time for the many exchanges that occur across organ walls
5. Correct
6. Yeah, it's the bronchomediastinal trunk and the other two are right
7. You wrote it outer to inner, from inner to outer is mucosa, muscular, fibrous
8. Correct


farmerjoe279 wrote:Which of the following is a primary lymphatic organ?
a) Spleen
b) Thymus
c) Lymph nodes


Answer
b) Thymus
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2018 - anatomy (1/2), crime (3/15), road (1/6)
2019 - anatomy (1/1), disease(2/2), heredity (1/1), road (1/5)

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platypusomelette
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby platypusomelette » January 28th, 2019, 10:46 am

amk578 wrote:
Answer
b) Thymus


That looks right to me, I'll post questions I guess.

1. What differentiates Hodgkin's lymphoma from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?
2. What two bacteria are most commonly responsible for lower UTI's?
3. Which of these cells are granulocytes? eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, B cells, neutrophils.
4. What happens during each of the 4 heart sounds?
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jxxu20
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby jxxu20 » January 29th, 2019, 1:49 pm

Answer
1. The main difference between Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is that Hodgkin's involves the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells whereas non-Hodgkin's does not. Also, Hodgkin's is rarer and mainly affects the upper body while NH can affect almost any body part.

2. E. coli and Staphylococcus

3. Eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils

4. Usually, the heart only produces two sounds (S1 and S2). S1 results from the closure of AV valves while S2 results from the closure of SL valves. The S3 sound occurs after S2 and is caused by a sudden deceleration of blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle. The S4 sound occurs just before S1 and is a result of late diastolic filling of the ventricles.
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platypusomelette
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby platypusomelette » February 1st, 2019, 3:41 am

jxxu20 wrote:
Answer
1. The main difference between Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is that Hodgkin's involves the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells whereas non-Hodgkin's does not. Also, Hodgkin's is rarer and mainly affects the upper body while NH can affect almost any body part.

2. E. coli and Staphylococcus

3. Eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils

4. Usually, the heart only produces two sounds (S1 and S2). S1 results from the closure of AV valves while S2 results from the closure of SL valves. The S3 sound occurs after S2 and is caused by a sudden deceleration of blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle. The S4 sound occurs just before S1 and is a result of late diastolic filling of the ventricles.


Nice job, your turn
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2019 events
anat: reg 4th
herp: reg 6th
genes: reg 5th
protein: reg 2nd
disease: reg 15th
fossils: reg 4th

past events
2016: a&p 1st, fossils 3rd
2017: a&p 3rd, herp 14th
2018: a&p 1st, microbe 8th, herp 13th :/
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gillio
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby gillio » February 6th, 2019, 11:18 am

Alrighty nobody's posted for a while so I'm gonna post.

Questions:
1. Which one needs to be treated immediately: atrial fibrillation or ventricular fibrillation? Explain why
2. Describe where Na is secreted or absorbed in the nephron.
3. What is the function of ANP(atrial natriuretic peptide) and VNP(ventricular natriuretic peptide)?
2019 Events: Anatomy and Physiology, Water Quality and Herpetology :)

amk578
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby amk578 » February 6th, 2019, 12:20 pm

gillio wrote:Alrighty nobody's posted for a while so I'm gonna post.

Questions:
1. Which one needs to be treated immediately: atrial fibrillation or ventricular fibrillation? Explain why
2. Describe where Na is secreted or absorbed in the nephron.
3. What is the function of ANP(atrial natriuretic peptide) and VNP(ventricular natriuretic peptide)?


Answer
1.Ventricular fibrillation because VFib can lead to cardiac arrest and/or even sudden death. VFib causes the heart to not pump enough blood for the arteries to carry through the systemic circuit (leading to unsustainability)
2. About 75-80% of sodium is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. Sodium is also reabsorbed in the distal tubule due to ADH. I'm pretty sure sodium isn't secreted.
3. ANP reduces Na permeability in response to a high blood pressure (as opposed to aldosterone enhancing permeability in response to low blood pressure). VNP also decreases sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule, and also inhibits RAAS
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2018 - anatomy (1/2), crime (3/15), road (1/6)
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gillio
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby gillio » February 6th, 2019, 5:37 pm

amk578 wrote:
gillio wrote:Alrighty nobody's posted for a while so I'm gonna post.

Questions:
1. Which one needs to be treated immediately: atrial fibrillation or ventricular fibrillation? Explain why
2. Describe where Na is secreted or absorbed in the nephron.
3. What is the function of ANP(atrial natriuretic peptide) and VNP(ventricular natriuretic peptide)?


Answer
1.Ventricular fibrillation because VFib can lead to cardiac arrest and/or even sudden death. VFib causes the heart to not pump enough blood for the arteries to carry through the systemic circuit (leading to unsustainability)
2. About 75-80% of sodium is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. Sodium is also reabsorbed in the distal tubule due to ADH. I'm pretty sure sodium isn't secreted.
3. ANP reduces Na permeability in response to a high blood pressure (as opposed to aldosterone enhancing permeability in response to low blood pressure). VNP also decreases sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule, and also inhibits RAAS


Yup, everything's good.
Quick note: sodium is reabsorbed in the ascending limb via active transport too. Your turn :D
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby amk578 » February 6th, 2019, 9:01 pm

gillio wrote:
amk578 wrote:
Answer
1.Ventricular fibrillation because VFib can lead to cardiac arrest and/or even sudden death. VFib causes the heart to not pump enough blood for the arteries to carry through the systemic circuit (leading to unsustainability)
2. About 75-80% of sodium is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. Sodium is also reabsorbed in the distal tubule due to ADH. I'm pretty sure sodium isn't secreted.
3. ANP reduces Na permeability in response to a high blood pressure (as opposed to aldosterone enhancing permeability in response to low blood pressure). VNP also decreases sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule, and also inhibits RAAS


Yup, everything's good.
Quick note: sodium is reabsorbed in the ascending limb via active transport too. Your turn :D


Questions
1. Where are vasa vasorum found and what is their purpose?
2. What is the average lifespan of RBCs? What about platelets?
3. ADH (AKA vasopressin) is a vasoconstrictor. Define vasoconstriction and list two effects of this.
4. In the spleen, what element is stored from the blood for later use?
5. What is the name of the widening at the beginning of the thoracic duct?
6. What is the tool that blood pressure is measured with?
7. In an EKG, the ___ is caused by atrial depolarization, the ____ is caused by ventricular depolarization, and the _____ is caused by ventricular repolarization.
8. What is disseminated intravascular coagulation?
Events (r/s)

2018 - anatomy (1/2), crime (3/15), road (1/6)
2019 - anatomy (1/1), disease(2/2), heredity (1/1), road (1/5)

gillio
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby gillio » February 7th, 2019, 6:31 pm

Questions
1. Where are vasa vasorum found and what is their purpose?
2. What is the average lifespan of RBCs? What about platelets?
3. ADH (AKA vasopressin) is a vasoconstrictor. Define vasoconstriction and list two effects of this.
4. In the spleen, what element is stored from the blood for later use?
5. What is the name of the widening at the beginning of the thoracic duct?
6. What is the tool that blood pressure is measured with?
7. In an EKG, the ___ is caused by atrial depolarization, the ____ is caused by ventricular depolarization, and the _____ is caused by ventricular repolarization.
8. What is disseminated intravascular coagulation?


Answers
1. The branches of capillaries that supply blood to the tunica externa and give off branches to external tissues. Found in larger, more elastic arteries such as the aorta.
2. Rbcs: about 120 days and platelets is about 8 days
3. Vasoconstriction is basically the constriction of the blood vessels. It raises blood pressure and reduces blood flow when vessels constrict near a site of injury.
4. iron
5. cisterna chyli
6. sphygmomanometer(lol dont know if i spelled it right)
7. p wave, qrs complex and t wave
8. blood clots form in smaller vessels across the body. It reduces platelet count and clotting factors, which means that blood may stop clotting at all and may result in excessive bleeding.
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amk578
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby amk578 » February 8th, 2019, 12:48 pm

gillio wrote:
Answers
1. The branches of capillaries that supply blood to the tunica externa and give off branches to external tissues. Found in larger, more elastic arteries such as the aorta.
2. Rbcs: about 120 days and platelets is about 8 days
3. Vasoconstriction is basically the constriction of the blood vessels. It raises blood pressure and reduces blood flow when vessels constrict near a site of injury.
4. iron
5. cisterna chyli
6. sphygmomanometer(lol dont know if i spelled it right)
7. p wave, qrs complex and t wave
8. blood clots form in smaller vessels across the body. It reduces platelet count and clotting factors, which means that blood may stop clotting at all and may result in excessive bleeding.


Correct, your turn
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2018 - anatomy (1/2), crime (3/15), road (1/6)
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gillio
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby gillio » February 10th, 2019, 7:55 am

1. What is the function of intercalated disks in cardiac muscle?
2. Trace the pathway of blood from the hepatic sinusoids to the right atrium.
3. What is the name of the structure that allows blood to pass between the right and left atria in utero?
4. Explain the countercurrent mechanism that occurs in the loop of Henle.
5. What is the functional difference of norepinephrine and epinephrine acting on vessels versus norepinephrine and epinephrine acting on the heart muscle? Why is this contradictory?
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Andromeda215
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby Andromeda215 » February 10th, 2019, 2:35 pm

answers?
1. Quickly conduct an action potential from cardiomyocyte to cardiomyocyte
2. Sinusoids --> central vein--> hepatic vein --> inferior vena cava --> RA
3. Foramen ovale
4. Descending limb is only permeable to water. Hyperosmotic medulla makes it so that the water in filtrate at that point gets reabsorbed. Ascending limb is not water permeable, and contains active transporters and symporters that send certain ions from filtrate to medulla, creating that hyperosmotic environment that allows the water reabsorption in the descending limb to take place.
5. In the heart epinephrine/norepinephrine binding causes faster heart rate and stronger contraction. In the vessels, the effect can vary depending on whether there's more epinephrine or norepinephrine acting (vasodilation or vasoconstriction). This is contradictory because in the heart epinephrine and norep cause the same effects, while in vessels, it's different.
Last edited by Andromeda215 on February 10th, 2019, 5:56 pm, edited 3 times in total.
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