Page 7 of 12

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: February 10th, 2019, 3:15 pm
by gillio
answers?
[hide]|1. Quickly conduct an action potential from cardiomyocyte to cardiomyocyte
2. Sinusoids --> central vein--> hepatic vein --> inferior vena cava --> RA
3. Foramen ovale
4. Descending limb is only permeable to water. Hyperosmotic medulla makes it so that the water in filtrate at that point gets reabsorbed. Ascending limb is not water permeable, and contains active transporters and symporters that send certain ions from filtrate to medulla, creating that hyperosmotic environment that allows the water reabsorption in the descending limb to take place.
5. In the heart epinephrine/norepinephrine binding causes faster heart rate and stronger contraction. In the vessels, the effect can vary depending on whether there's more epinephrine or norepinephrine acting (vasodilation or vasoconstriction). This is contradictory because in the heart epinephrine and norep cause the same effects, while in vessels, it's different.[/hide]
Although your answer is correct for 1, the main function of intercalated discs in the cardiac muscle is to make sure that each cell in atrial myocardium and the ventricular myocardium contract together as a syncytium. All the other ones look right :geek:. Also, you forgot to put the | right after the [hide] when you began answering the question and that is why your answers weren't hidden.

Quick question: can epinephrine and norepinephrine both be vasoconstrictors and vasodilators in blood vessels? Or is one strictly a vasoconstrictor and the other a vasodilator, and depending upon the quantity of each, vasoconstriction or vasodilation occurs? Your wording kinda confused me

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: February 10th, 2019, 5:46 pm
by Andromeda215
Thanks! sorry about doing the hide feature wrong.
Yeah so really from what i know theres alpha, beta1, and beta2 receptors. Binding of alpha receptors tends to cause vasoconstriction, binding of beta2 receptors causes vasodilation, and binding of beta1 causes increased contractability and HR. Epinephrine preferentially binds to beta receptors (1 and 2). Norepinephrine preferentially binds to alpha.
Only beta1 receptors are found in the heart, so no matter whether epinephrine or norepinephrine actually bind to those receptors, the effect is the same.
But in skeletal muscle arteries, alpha and beta2 are found. So whether overall vasoconstriction or vasodilation happens depends on how much epinephrine or norepinephrine is around at the time. More epinephrine (like during exercise) means overall, more beta2 receptors are bound, which means on average more vasodilation happens, which is good bc more blood flow to tissue that needs it.
hopefully that made sense

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: February 10th, 2019, 6:04 pm
by gillio
Thanks! sorry about doing the hide feature wrong.
Yeah so really from what i know theres alpha, beta1, and beta2 receptors. Binding of alpha receptors tends to cause vasoconstriction, binding of beta2 receptors causes vasodilation, and binding of beta1 causes increased contractability and HR. Epinephrine preferentially binds to beta receptors (1 and 2). Norepinephrine preferentially binds to alpha.
Only beta1 receptors are found in the heart, so no matter whether epinephrine or norepinephrine actually bind to those receptors, the effect is the same.
But in skeletal muscle arteries, alpha and beta2 are found. So whether overall vasoconstriction or vasodilation happens depends on how much epinephrine or norepinephrine is around at the time. More epinephrine (like during exercise) means overall, more beta2 receptors are bound, which means on average more vasodilation happens, which is good bc more blood flow to tissue that needs it.
hopefully that made sense
Thank you so much! Anybody can go next lol

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: February 10th, 2019, 9:56 pm
by Andromeda215
1. What hormone most typically stimulates RBC production?
2. Are arteries or veins larger in diameter? why?
3. What is anemia?

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: February 11th, 2019, 2:00 am
by sophisSyo
1. What hormone most typically stimulates RBC production?
2. Are arteries or veins larger in diameter? why?
3. What is anemia?
My answers
1. hemopoietin 2. Veins. Arteries must be narrow in diameter because there is high pressure blood that must be maintained/carried 3. Anemia is a general term for several specific disorders where in one way or another, oxygen cannot adequately reach tissues, whether through an iron deficiency or misshapen erythrocytes.

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: February 11th, 2019, 2:57 pm
by Andromeda215
1. What hormone most typically stimulates RBC production?
2. Are arteries or veins larger in diameter? why?
3. What is anemia?
My answers
1. hemopoietin 2. Veins. Arteries must be narrow in diameter because there is high pressure blood that must be maintained/carried 3. Anemia is a general term for several specific disorders where in one way or another, oxygen cannot adequately reach tissues, whether through an iron deficiency or misshapen erythrocytes.
Looks good! Your turn

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: February 11th, 2019, 7:13 pm
by sophisSyo
My questions
1) During hemostasis, what is the difference between intrinsic pathway and extrinsic pathway? 2) For the embryo, what do liver-spleen produce from mesenchyme? 3) How do blood volume and systematic vascular resistance compensate for heart failure?

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: February 12th, 2019, 6:44 am
by gillio
My questions
1) During hemostasis, what is the difference between intrinsic pathway and extrinsic pathway? 2) For the embryo, what do liver-spleen produce from mesenchyme? 3) How do blood volume and systematic vascular resistance compensate for heart failure?
My answers
1) The extrinsic pathway is initiated by foreign injury when the blood touches the damages tissue. The intrinsic pathway doesn't need an external injury. It is initiated when there is damage inside the vascular walls. 2) RBCs? 3)Increase in blood volume compensates for heart failure and increases stroke volume so that more blood reaches the tissues. Resistance also increases(vasocontriction) to maintain blood pressure because BP usually is less due to reduced CO caused by heart failure.

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: February 12th, 2019, 8:06 am
by sophisSyo
My questions
1) During hemostasis, what is the difference between intrinsic pathway and extrinsic pathway? 2) For the embryo, what do liver-spleen produce from mesenchyme? 3) How do blood volume and systematic vascular resistance compensate for heart failure?
My answers
1) The extrinsic pathway is initiated by foreign injury when the blood touches the damages tissue. The intrinsic pathway doesn't need an external injury. It is initiated when there is damage inside the vascular walls. 2) RBCs? 3)Increase in blood volume compensates for heart failure and increases stroke volume so that more blood reaches the tissues. Resistance also increases(vasocontriction) to maintain blood pressure because BP usually is less due to reduced CO caused by heart failure.
For number 2, I was looking for
this
reticulo-endothelial cell, which is the parent cell for all blood cells
but okay. your turn :)

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: February 12th, 2019, 8:33 am
by gillio
1. Name the specific type of endothelial lining present in the kidneys.
2. Name the test that can be used to quantify how much time it takes for extrinsic and intrinsic clotting, respectively, to occur.
3. What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus made of?

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: February 12th, 2019, 12:55 pm
by amk578
1. Name the specific type of endothelial lining present in the kidneys.
2. Name the test that can be used to quantify how much time it takes for extrinsic and intrinsic clotting, respectively, to occur.
3. What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus made of?
Answer
1. Simple squamous? 2. PT (prothrombin time) is extrinsic, PTT (partial thromboplastin time) is intrinsic 3. The macula densa, juxtaglomerular cells, and mesangial cells

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: February 12th, 2019, 2:36 pm
by gillio
1. Name the specific type of endothelial lining present in the kidneys.
2. Name the test that can be used to quantify how much time it takes for extrinsic and intrinsic clotting, respectively, to occur.
3. What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus made of?
Answer
1. Simple squamous? 2. PT (prothrombin time) is extrinsic, PTT (partial thromboplastin time) is intrinsic 3. The macula densa, juxtaglomerular cells, and mesangial cells
I was looking for simple cuboidal for 1. :)
Your turn!

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: February 12th, 2019, 4:12 pm
by amk578
I was looking for simple cuboidal for 1. :)
Your turn!
Oh yeah my bad.
Questions
1. Myeloid stem cells give rise to what different types of stem cell lines? 2. Track the flow of urine by filling in the blanks: Glomerular capsule > _____ > Loop of Henle > _____ > Collecting duct/tubule > Papillary duct > _____ > Major calyx > Renal pelvis > Ureter > _____ > Urethra 3. The thoracic and right lymphatic ducts drain into what veins? 4. What is serum? 5. Briefly describe 2 of the 4 routes of capillary permeability. 6. What type of muscles do the atria consist of? 7. Micturition is caused by _____ muscle contractions? 8. The tunica intima of blood vessels are made up of what type of epithelium?

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: February 12th, 2019, 7:57 pm
by gillio
I was looking for simple cuboidal for 1. :)
Your turn!
Oh yeah my bad.
Questions
1. Myeloid stem cells give rise to what different types of stem cell lines? 2. Track the flow of urine by filling in the blanks: Glomerular capsule > _____ > Loop of Henle > _____ > Collecting duct/tubule > Papillary duct > _____ > Major calyx > Renal pelvis > Ureter > _____ > Urethra 3. The thoracic and right lymphatic ducts drain into what veins? 4. What is serum? 5. Briefly describe 2 of the 4 routes of capillary permeability. 6. What type of muscles do the atria consist of? 7. Micturition is caused by _____ muscle contractions? 8. The tunica intima of blood vessels are made up of what type of epithelium?
Answers
1. RBCs, platelets, mast cells, granulocytes, and monocytes. 2. Glomerular capsule > [b]Proximal convoluted tubule[/b] > Loop of Henle > [b]distal convoluted tubule[/b] > Collecting duct/tubule > Papillary duct > [b]minor calyx[/b] > Major calyx > Renal pelvis > Ureter > [b]bladder[/b] > Urethra 3. subclavian 4. plasma minus clotting factors(what blood clots shrink, they release serum) 5. diffusion: high to low concentration, passive Fenestration: also passive, though holes in the capillary 6. cardiac muscle? 7. detrusor? 8. simple squamous

Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Posted: February 15th, 2019, 11:06 am
by amk578
Answers
1. RBCs, platelets, mast cells, granulocytes, and monocytes. 2. Glomerular capsule > [b]Proximal convoluted tubule[/b] > Loop of Henle > [b]distal convoluted tubule[/b] > Collecting duct/tubule > Papillary duct > [b]minor calyx[/b] > Major calyx > Renal pelvis > Ureter > [b]bladder[/b] > Urethra 3. subclavian 4. plasma minus clotting factors(what blood clots shrink, they release serum) 5. diffusion: high to low concentration, passive Fenestration: also passive, though holes in the capillary 6. cardiac muscle? 7. detrusor? 8. simple squamous
Sorry for the late response, they all look good, except for 6 I was looking for pectinate muscles.
Your turn!