Heredity B/Designer Genes C

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EwwPhysics
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Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Post by EwwPhysics » September 24th, 2020, 6:28 am

Let's get this question marathon started! hopefully it doesn't die. The Heredity and Designer Genes question marathons were combined last year, so I'm doing that again this year. If you're in Division B and there's a question that you don't know the answer to (for example there may be some biotechnology questions), don't worry, just either leave it blank or look it up!

These are just some random questions.

1. Briefly describe overdominance and name an example.

2. What is the effect of histone acetylation? DNA methylation?

3. How do microRNA and small interfering RNA work? (brief explanation).

4. You are heterozygous for a dominant trait, but do not express the trait. Name 1 or more ways how this could happen.
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2021 Possible Events:
Designer Genes
Fossils
Protein Modeling
Disease Detectives
Heredity  (we <3 genetics!)
Fossils :D
WIDI (no comment)
Circuit :/

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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Post by twoplustwoisten » October 10th, 2020, 9:01 pm

It's aliiiiiive! (ish) ;)
EwwPhysics wrote:
September 24th, 2020, 6:28 am
1. Briefly describe overdominance and name an example.

2. What is the effect of histone acetylation? DNA methylation?

3. How do microRNA and small interfering RNA work? (brief explanation).

4. You are heterozygous for a dominant trait, but do not express the trait. Name 1 or more ways how this could happen.
  1. Overdominance is when the heterozygote has different/better attributes than either of their(?) homozygous parents. (none of the information I had found was super clear, sorry) The typical example is sickle cell anemia. An Explanation (in case 'name' doesn't mean the same thing to us) --> Apparently, the heterozygote has both kinds of blood cells, and the healthy ones carry oxygen well, and the sickle ones 'collapse' around malaria, so are beneficial to a recovery from malaria. Recessive homozygotes have entirely sickle-shaped cells, so sickling crises occur, while dominant (healthy) homozygotes have less malaria resistance.
  2. a The effect of histone acetylation is that the charge of the histone tail changes from positive to negative. b DNA methylation turns cytosine into 5-methylcytosine by adding a methyl group to cytosine C5.
  3. By neutralising targeted mRNA molecules, preventing translation.
  4. If you have a gene determining hair pigment colour that is homozygous dominant, but you also have a gene preventing hair growth, you won't be able to see the hair's colouration. I think this is called dominant epistasis.
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Post by EwwPhysics » October 11th, 2020, 4:52 pm

twoplustwoisten wrote:
October 10th, 2020, 9:01 pm
It's aliiiiiive! (ish) ;)
EwwPhysics wrote:
September 24th, 2020, 6:28 am
1. Briefly describe overdominance and name an example.

2. What is the effect of histone acetylation? DNA methylation?

3. How do microRNA and small interfering RNA work? (brief explanation).

4. You are heterozygous for a dominant trait, but do not express the trait. Name 1 or more ways how this could happen.
  1. Overdominance is when the heterozygote has different/better attributes than either of their(?) homozygous parents. (none of the information I had found was super clear, sorry) The typical example is sickle cell anemia. An Explanation (in case 'name' doesn't mean the same thing to us) --> Apparently, the heterozygote has both kinds of blood cells, and the healthy ones carry oxygen well, and the sickle ones 'collapse' around malaria, so are beneficial to a recovery from malaria. Recessive homozygotes have entirely sickle-shaped cells, so sickling crises occur, while dominant (healthy) homozygotes have less malaria resistance.
  2. a The effect of histone acetylation is that the charge of the histone tail changes from positive to negative. b DNA methylation turns cytosine into 5-methylcytosine by adding a methyl group to cytosine C5.
  3. By neutralising targeted mRNA molecules, preventing translation.
  4. If you have a gene determining hair pigment colour that is homozygous dominant, but you also have a gene preventing hair growth, you won't be able to see the hair's colouration. I think this is called dominant epistasis.
1. Correct, thanks for the explanation lol.
2. Yeah that's right, but I was more looking more for their effects on gene expression (acetylation increases expression while methylation stops transcription from happening). Should've worded that question better oops.
3. Correct! More specifically, they are cleaved by the enzyme dicer and incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex which they guide to the mRNA to cut.
4. yup! I appreciate the british spelling  ;) 
Bala Cynwyd Middle School --> Lower Merion High School '24

2021 Possible Events:
Designer Genes
Fossils
Protein Modeling
Disease Detectives
Heredity  (we <3 genetics!)
Fossils :D
WIDI (no comment)
Circuit :/

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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Post by twoplustwoisten » October 12th, 2020, 4:33 pm

Yay! I'm not very good at writing questions, so, sorry Ms. Physics and everyone else.

1. Please place the following phases of mitosis in chronological order: Anaphase, telophase, prophase, metaphase.
2. What is trisomy 21 more commonly referred to as?
3. Please explain the difference between a genotype and a phenotype.
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Post by EwwPhysics » October 13th, 2020, 8:48 am

twoplustwoisten wrote:
October 12th, 2020, 4:33 pm
Yay! I'm not very good at writing questions, so, sorry Ms. Physics and everyone else.

1. Please place the following phases of mitosis in chronological order: Anaphase, telophase, prophase, metaphase.
2. What is trisomy 21 more commonly referred to as?
3. Please explain the difference between a genotype and a phenotype.
1.
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase.
2.
Down Syndrome.
3.
A genotype is an individual's alleles/genes while a phenotype is the traits that they express (phenotype is often affected by both genotype and the environment). 
Bala Cynwyd Middle School --> Lower Merion High School '24

2021 Possible Events:
Designer Genes
Fossils
Protein Modeling
Disease Detectives
Heredity  (we <3 genetics!)
Fossils :D
WIDI (no comment)
Circuit :/

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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Post by twoplustwoisten » October 13th, 2020, 9:31 am

EwwPhysics wrote:
October 13th, 2020, 8:48 am
twoplustwoisten wrote:
October 12th, 2020, 4:33 pm
Yay! I'm not very good at writing questions, so, sorry Ms. Physics and everyone else.

1. Please place the following phases of mitosis in chronological order: Anaphase, telophase, prophase, metaphase.
2. What is trisomy 21 more commonly referred to as?
3. Please explain the difference between a genotype and a phenotype.
1.
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase.
2.
Down Syndrome.
3.
A genotype is an individual's alleles/genes while a phenotype is the traits that they express (phenotype is often affected by both genotype and the environment). 
All correct!
"Don't eat stem, do STEM" -Me

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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Post by EwwPhysics » October 15th, 2020, 8:12 am

Great! Some biotechnology questions:

1. Briefly describe the process of RT-PCR.


2-5 - Match each blot to the thing that it detects:

Word Bank: DNA, RNA, proteins, post-translational modifications

2. Northern Blot
3. Eastern Blot
4. Southern Blot
5. Western Blot


6. The plasmid below is cut with two restriction enzymes - EcoRI and HindIII. This cuts the plasmid into several pieces. How long is each piece?

Image
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2021 Possible Events:
Designer Genes
Fossils
Protein Modeling
Disease Detectives
Heredity  (we <3 genetics!)
Fossils :D
WIDI (no comment)
Circuit :/

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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Post by AstroClarinet » October 15th, 2020, 5:27 pm

EwwPhysics wrote:
October 15th, 2020, 8:12 am
Great! Some biotechnology questions:

1. Briefly describe the process of RT-PCR.


2-5 - Match each blot to the thing that it detects:

Word Bank: DNA, RNA, proteins, post-translational modifications

2. Northern Blot
3. Eastern Blot
4. Southern Blot
5. Western Blot


6. The plasmid below is cut with two restriction enzymes - EcoRI and HindIII. This cuts the plasmid into several pieces. How long is each piece?

Image
1. RT-PCR first performs reverse transcription on the RNA strands (creates complementary DNA strands for the RNA strands, using reverse transcriptase) and then uses PCR (cycles of denaturation, annealing, and extension) to create many copies of the complementary DNA strands. The DNA can then be analyzed with techniques like gel electrophoresis and sequencing to determine the properties of the original RNA strand.
2. RNA
3. Post-translational modifications
4. DNA
5. Proteins
6. 4.0 kb, 7.5 kb, 3.9 kb
2019-2021 events: Astronomy, Designer Genes, Water Quality
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 Solar System, Boomilever, Density Lab, Ecology, Optics, Towers, Microbe Mission, Mission Possible
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Post by EwwPhysics » October 16th, 2020, 5:42 am

AstroClarinet wrote:
October 15th, 2020, 5:27 pm
1. RT-PCR first performs reverse transcription on the RNA strands (creates complementary DNA strands for the RNA strands, using reverse transcriptase) and then uses PCR (cycles of denaturation, annealing, and extension) to create many copies of the complementary DNA strands. The DNA can then be analyzed with techniques like gel electrophoresis and sequencing to determine the properties of the original RNA strand.
2. RNA
3. Post-translational modifications
4. DNA
5. Proteins
6. 4.0 kb, 7.5 kb, 3.9 kb
All correct, your turn!
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2021 Possible Events:
Designer Genes
Fossils
Protein Modeling
Disease Detectives
Heredity  (we <3 genetics!)
Fossils :D
WIDI (no comment)
Circuit :/

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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Post by AstroClarinet » October 16th, 2020, 6:46 pm

1. How does the Law of Independent Assortment affect dihybrid and trihybrid crosses?
2. A person with variable number tandem repeats that repeat more times will have bands where on a Southern blot? (relative to others who have shorter VNTRs)
3. Explain the role of the maturation-promoting factor (MPF) in cell division.
2019-2021 events: Astronomy, Designer Genes, Water Quality
1st place at state in Solar System B (2018) and Ecology B (2017)
 Solar System, Boomilever, Density Lab, Ecology, Optics, Towers, Microbe Mission, Mission Possible
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