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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Posted: October 22nd, 2020, 8:49 pm
by twoplustwoisten
AstroClarinet wrote:
October 16th, 2020, 6:46 pm
1. How does the Law of Independent Assortment affect dihybrid and trihybrid crosses?
2. A person with variable number tandem repeats that repeat more times will have bands where on a Southern blot? (relative to others who have shorter VNTRs)
3. Explain the role of the maturation-promoting factor (MPF) in cell division.
1. Uhh. . . it affects them by not affecting them. The Law of Independent Assortment states that the genes do not influence sorting of alleles, therefore making each little square of the (rather massive, in these cases) Punnett Square an equally likely outcome.
2. Farther apart? Maybe something to do with loci? This seems really vague, but that might just be me : /
3. It triggers the mitotic spindle to form and starts mitosis.

Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Posted: October 23rd, 2020, 6:05 am
by AstroClarinet
twoplustwoisten wrote:
October 22nd, 2020, 8:49 pm
AstroClarinet wrote:
October 16th, 2020, 6:46 pm
1. How does the Law of Independent Assortment affect dihybrid and trihybrid crosses?
2. A person with variable number tandem repeats that repeat more times will have bands where on a Southern blot? (relative to others who have shorter VNTRs)
3. Explain the role of the maturation-promoting factor (MPF) in cell division.
1. Uhh. . . it affects them by not affecting them. The Law of Independent Assortment states that the genes do not influence sorting of alleles, therefore making each little square of the (rather massive, in these cases) Punnett Square an equally likely outcome.
2. Farther apart? Maybe something to do with loci? This seems really vague, but that might just be me : /
3. It triggers the mitotic spindle to form and starts mitosis.
1. The Law of Independent Assortment says that the alleles of the different traits in a dihybrid/trihybrid cross are inherited separately (in other words, the genes are unlinked). If the genes were linked, then not all the combinations of alleles would be possible, and the crosses would just have the same ratios as those of a monohybrid cross. 
2. This is really a complicated way of asking, "do longer fragments of DNA travel further or less far than shorter fragments of DNA in gel electrophoresis?" RFLP often uses VNTRs, which are sections of DNA which repeat a variable number of times. When these VNTRs are restricted into fragments and run through gel electrophoresis, the longer fragments (the ones with more repeats) won't travel as far from the wells at the top of the gel. A Southern blot is performed to record the results of the gel (basically, when they show you a picture of a Southern blot, it'll look the same as if you were looking at the gel). Therefore, if someone has a VNTR with more repeats, they will have a band higher up on the Southern blot. 
3. Yep

Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Posted: October 23rd, 2020, 11:08 am
by twoplustwoisten
AstroClarinet wrote:
October 23rd, 2020, 6:05 am
twoplustwoisten wrote:
October 22nd, 2020, 8:49 pm
AstroClarinet wrote:
October 16th, 2020, 6:46 pm
1. How does the Law of Independent Assortment affect dihybrid and trihybrid crosses?
2. A person with variable number tandem repeats that repeat more times will have bands where on a Southern blot? (relative to others who have shorter VNTRs)
3. Explain the role of the maturation-promoting factor (MPF) in cell division.
1. Uhh. . . it affects them by not affecting them. The Law of Independent Assortment states that the genes do not influence sorting of alleles, therefore making each little square of the (rather massive, in these cases) Punnett Square an equally likely outcome.
2. Farther apart? Maybe something to do with loci? This seems really vague, but that might just be me : /
3. It triggers the mitotic spindle to form and starts mitosis.
1. The Law of Independent Assortment says that the alleles of the different traits in a dihybrid/trihybrid cross are inherited separately (in other words, the genes are unlinked). If the genes were linked, then not all the combinations of alleles would be possible, and the crosses would just have the same ratios as those of a monohybrid cross. 
2. This is really a complicated way of asking, "do longer fragments of DNA travel further or less far than shorter fragments of DNA in gel electrophoresis?" RFLP often uses VNTRs, which are sections of DNA which repeat a variable number of times. When these VNTRs are restricted into fragments and run through gel electrophoresis, the longer fragments (the ones with more repeats) won't travel as far from the wells at the top of the gel. A Southern blot is performed to record the results of the gel (basically, when they show you a picture of a Southern blot, it'll look the same as if you were looking at the gel). Therefore, if someone has a VNTR with more repeats, they will have a band higher up on the Southern blot. 
3. Yep
Um. . .do I put questions next even though I got most of these wrong?

Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Posted: October 23rd, 2020, 12:55 pm
by AstroClarinet
twoplustwoisten wrote:
October 23rd, 2020, 11:08 am
Um. . .do I put questions next even though I got most of these wrong?
Yeah, go ahead!
It's perfectly okay to get questions wrong, as long as you learn something from them :D

Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Posted: October 27th, 2020, 11:14 am
by twoplustwoisten
Please explain the process of gel electrophoresis.
Please state the basic types of mutation, and a short (1 sentence) definiton of each.
What does a codon specify?

Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Posted: January 5th, 2021, 10:41 am
by AstroClarinet
twoplustwoisten wrote:
October 27th, 2020, 11:14 am
Please explain the process of gel electrophoresis.
Please state the basic types of mutation, and a short (1 sentence) definiton of each.
What does a codon specify?
I might as well revive this thread.
1. Gel electrophoresis is the process of separating DNA fragments by size. First the gel electrophoresis apparatus is set up with a gel box, gel, and buffer. The DNA sample(s) are pipetted into the wells at the cathode side of the gel, usually along with a DNA ladder (which has DNA fragments of known length). The power to the gel box is turned on and an electric current flows through the gel & buffer. This moves the DNA fragments toward the anode due to their negatively-charged backbone. Smaller DNA fragments move more quickly because they can fit through the pores of the gel more easily. The power is then turned off with the DNA fragments left in different places, indicating their size. The results can then be analyzed through staining or Southern blotting.
2. 
-Frameshift (insertion/deletion): A mutation which adds or deletes a base/base pair, causing the sequence to be shifted and the codons to be misaligned.
-Substitution: One base or base pair is replaced by another.
-Transition: One pyrimidine base is substituted for another pyrimidine, or a purine is substituted for a purine.
-Transversion: One pyrimidine base is substituted for a purine, or a purine is substituted for a pyrimidine.
-Silent: A mutation that does not change the amino acid coded for.
-Nonsense: A mutation that creates a STOP codon.
-Missense: A mutation that changes the amino acid coded for by the codon.
-Conservative: A mutation that causes an amino acid to be replaced by a biochemically similar one.
-Nonconservative: A mutation that causes an amino acid to be replaced by one that's very different.
3. A specific amino acid to place in the protein chain, or a signal to stop the protein chain.

Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Posted: January 5th, 2021, 4:14 pm
by twoplustwoisten
AstroClarinet wrote:
January 5th, 2021, 10:41 am
twoplustwoisten wrote:
October 27th, 2020, 11:14 am
Please explain the process of gel electrophoresis.
Please state the basic types of mutation, and a short (1 sentence) definiton of each.
What does a codon specify?
I might as well revive this thread.
1. Gel electrophoresis is the process of separating DNA fragments by size. First the gel electrophoresis apparatus is set up with a gel box, gel, and buffer. The DNA sample(s) are pipetted into the wells at the cathode side of the gel, usually along with a DNA ladder (which has DNA fragments of known length). The power to the gel box is turned on and an electric current flows through the gel & buffer. This moves the DNA fragments toward the anode due to their negatively-charged backbone. Smaller DNA fragments move more quickly because they can fit through the pores of the gel more easily. The power is then turned off with the DNA fragments left in different places, indicating their size. The results can then be analyzed through staining or Southern blotting.
2. 
-Frameshift (insertion/deletion): A mutation which adds or deletes a base/base pair, causing the sequence to be shifted and the codons to be misaligned.
-Substitution: One base or base pair is replaced by another.
-Transition: One pyrimidine base is substituted for another pyrimidine, or a purine is substituted for a purine.
-Transversion: One pyrimidine base is substituted for a purine, or a purine is substituted for a pyrimidine.
-Silent: A mutation that does not change the amino acid coded for.
-Nonsense: A mutation that creates a STOP codon.
-Missense: A mutation that changes the amino acid coded for by the codon.
-Conservative: A mutation that causes an amino acid to be replaced by a biochemically similar one.
-Nonconservative: A mutation that causes an amino acid to be replaced by one that's very different.
3. A specific amino acid to place in the protein chain, or a signal to stop the protein chain.
All correct! For No. 2, I was only looking for base substitutions, deletions, and insertions.

Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Posted: January 5th, 2021, 6:11 pm
by AstroClarinet
Say you have some alien species (that uses DNA chromosomes, XX/XY, etc.) and you're looking at two genes. One gene determines if the alien has good taste in music. We'll just assume there's some standard on this planet for what music is considered "good". This autosomal gene has a good-taste allele (G) that is completely dominant to the bad-taste allele (g). Another gene determines if the alien has ears or not. This gene is X-linked, with the ears allele (Xe) being recessive and the no-ears allele (XE) being dominant (a heterozygous female exhibits the no-ears phenotype). If the alien lacks ears, it will not have the good-taste phenotype, even if it has the good-taste genotype.

1. What is the relationship between these two genes called?
2. If an GgXEY male is crossed with a ggXEXe female, what is the chance of a male offspring having the good taste in music genotype?
3. What is the chance of a male offspring having the good taste in music phenotype?
4. What is the chance of a female offspring having the good taste in music genotype?
5. What is the chance of a female offspring having the good taste in music phenotype?

Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Posted: January 5th, 2021, 7:29 pm
by EwwPhysics
AstroClarinet wrote:
January 5th, 2021, 6:11 pm
Say you have some alien species (that uses DNA chromosomes, XX/XY, etc.) and you're looking at two genes. One gene determines if the alien has good taste in music. We'll just assume there's some standard on this planet for what music is considered "good". This autosomal gene has a good-taste allele (G) that is completely dominant to the bad-taste allele (g). Another gene determines if the alien has ears or not. This gene is X-linked, with the ears allele (Xe) being recessive and the no-ears allele (XE) being dominant (a heterozygous female exhibits the no-ears phenotype). If the alien lacks ears, it will not have the good-taste phenotype, even if it has the good-taste genotype.

1. What is the relationship between these two genes called?
2. If an GgXEY male is crossed with a ggXEXe female, what is the chance of a male offspring having the good taste in music genotype?
3. What is the chance of a male offspring having the good taste in music phenotype?
4. What is the chance of a female offspring having the good taste in music genotype?
5. What is the chance of a female offspring having the good taste in music phenotype?
1.
epistasis
2.
50%
3.
25%
4.
50%
5.
0% (rip)

Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Posted: January 6th, 2021, 7:22 am
by AstroClarinet
EwwPhysics wrote:
January 5th, 2021, 7:29 pm
AstroClarinet wrote:
January 5th, 2021, 6:11 pm
Say you have some alien species (that uses DNA chromosomes, XX/XY, etc.) and you're looking at two genes. One gene determines if the alien has good taste in music. We'll just assume there's some standard on this planet for what music is considered "good". This autosomal gene has a good-taste allele (G) that is completely dominant to the bad-taste allele (g). Another gene determines if the alien has ears or not. This gene is X-linked, with the ears allele (Xe) being recessive and the no-ears allele (XE) being dominant (a heterozygous female exhibits the no-ears phenotype). If the alien lacks ears, it will not have the good-taste phenotype, even if it has the good-taste genotype.

1. What is the relationship between these two genes called?
2. If an GgXEY male is crossed with a ggXEXe female, what is the chance of a male offspring having the good taste in music genotype?
3. What is the chance of a male offspring having the good taste in music phenotype?
4. What is the chance of a female offspring having the good taste in music genotype?
5. What is the chance of a female offspring having the good taste in music phenotype?
1.
epistasis
2.
50%
3.
25%
4.
50%
5.
0% (rip)
Yep that's correct!