Heredity B/Designer Genes C

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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Post by amk578 » January 6th, 2019, 8:30 pm

platypusomelette wrote:1. What is the difference between a transversion and a transition?
2. Explain how RFLPs can be used to identify an individual.
3. What kinds of nucleotides are used in sanger sequencing?
4. What is the purpose of eukaryotic control elements?
5. Name some examples of prezygotic and postzygotic barriers.
1. A transition mutation is where a base is changed to the base that matches its shape (think purines and pyrimidines, so like GCG could mutate to GCA because A and G are both purines). A transversion mutation is where a base is changed to be any base, regardless of shape, so GCG could mutate to even be GCC, even though G is a purine and C is a pyrimidine.
2. I think it's because DNA is unique to each person, restriction enzymes "cut" out genes that are likely to differentiate the individual's DNA from others.
3. Dideoxynucleotides (ddNTP)
4. I was confused by this question, but I think RNA polymerase binds to the control elements to initiate transcription.
5. Prezygotic barriers: Isolation? (i.e. mechanical or habitat isolation). Postzygotic barriers: Hybrid sterility (where the offspring is not fertile) or hybrid breakdown (the F1 generation is fertile but the generation following, the F2 generation, is not fertile)
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Post by platypusomelette » January 10th, 2019, 7:16 am

amk578 wrote:
platypusomelette wrote:1. What is the difference between a transversion and a transition?
2. Explain how RFLPs can be used to identify an individual.
3. What kinds of nucleotides are used in sanger sequencing?
4. What is the purpose of eukaryotic control elements?
5. Name some examples of prezygotic and postzygotic barriers.
1. A transition mutation is where a base is changed to the base that matches its shape (think purines and pyrimidines, so like GCG could mutate to GCA because A and G are both purines). A transversion mutation is where a base is changed to be any base, regardless of shape, so GCG could mutate to even be GCC, even though G is a purine and C is a pyrimidine.
2. I think it's because DNA is unique to each person, restriction enzymes "cut" out genes that are likely to differentiate the individual's DNA from others.
3. Dideoxynucleotides (ddNTP)
4. I was confused by this question, but I think RNA polymerase binds to the control elements to initiate transcription.
5. Prezygotic barriers: Isolation? (i.e. mechanical or habitat isolation). Postzygotic barriers: Hybrid sterility (where the offspring is not fertile) or hybrid breakdown (the F1 generation is fertile but the generation following, the F2 generation, is not fertile)
Yup correct, except that transitions are when a purine changes into another purine (G to A) while transversions are pyrimidines to pyrimidines (T to C). For 3 I was looking for control elements help RNA polymerase bind to the promoter and initiate transcription. Your turn
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Post by amk578 » January 10th, 2019, 6:57 pm

1. What arises from spermogenesis and oogenesis?
2. What is the function of DNA polymerase 3?
3. The extension phase of PCR occurs at what temperature?
4. What are epigenetics?
5. What is hybridization, in regards to DNA microarrays?
6. What is synapsis and what structure does it form?
7. What is pleiotropy and give an example?
8. What are lipoplexes?
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Post by platypusomelette » January 12th, 2019, 2:07 pm

amk578 wrote:1. What arises from spermogenesis and oogenesis?
2. What is the function of DNA polymerase 3?
3. The extension phase of PCR occurs at what temperature?
4. What are epigenetics?
5. What is hybridization, in regards to DNA microarrays?
6. What is synapsis and what structure does it form?
7. What is pleiotropy and give an example?
8. What are lipoplexes?
1. Spermogenesis = sperm, oogenesis = ova
2. Carries out all main elongation during DNA replication in prokaryotes, goes 5' to 3'
3. 70 C
4. (guessing) alterations to gene expression that are passed down hereditarily. Would be cool if u could list examples of this cuz idk :')
5. Complementary binding of two single stranded DNA pieces to create one double stranded piece
6. Linkage of two sets of homologous chromosomes (two sister chromatids each) where alleles are swapped. The two chromosomes are stuck together by a synaptonemal complex, they cross over at chiasmata, and the mass of four sister chromatids is called a bivalent / tetrad.
7. An allele that produces multiple phenotypic effects. For example the cystic fibrosis mutation will both make your lungs suck and your skin salty.
8. No idea
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anat: reg 4th
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genes: reg 5th
protein: reg 2nd
disease: reg 15th
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2016: a&p 1st, fossils 3rd
2017: a&p 3rd, herp 14th
2018: a&p 1st, microbe 8th, herp 13th :/
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Post by amk578 » January 12th, 2019, 9:49 pm

platypusomelette wrote:
amk578 wrote:1. What arises from spermogenesis and oogenesis?
2. What is the function of DNA polymerase 3?
3. The extension phase of PCR occurs at what temperature?
4. What are epigenetics?
5. What is hybridization, in regards to DNA microarrays?
6. What is synapsis and what structure does it form?
7. What is pleiotropy and give an example?
8. What are lipoplexes?
1. Spermogenesis = sperm, oogenesis = ova
2. Carries out all main elongation during DNA replication in prokaryotes, goes 5' to 3'
3. 70 C
4. (guessing) alterations to gene expression that are passed down hereditarily. Would be cool if u could list examples of this cuz idk :')
5. Complementary binding of two single stranded DNA pieces to create one double stranded piece
6. Linkage of two sets of homologous chromosomes (two sister chromatids each) where alleles are swapped. The two chromosomes are stuck together by a synaptonemal complex, they cross over at chiasmata, and the mass of four sister chromatids is called a bivalent / tetrad.
7. An allele that produces multiple phenotypic effects. For example the cystic fibrosis mutation will both make your lungs suck and your skin salty.
8. No idea
1. I was looking for the exact numbers of each gamete.Spermogenesis= 4 mature sperm cells, Oogenesis= 1 egg and 3 polar bodies 2. Looks good
3. Correct
4. That looks correct, I was just looking for a simple explanation/definition
5. Not exactly, again I was looking just in terms of its use in microarrays so hybridization is the process in which the cDNA molecules bind to the DNA probes in the slide 6. Correct
7. Correct
8. A lipoplex is a non-viral gene therapy vector. It's a combination of nucleic acid and lipids, and it's most common use is the transfer of DNA to cancer cells Your turn
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Post by platypusomelette » January 15th, 2019, 11:04 am

amk578 wrote: 1. I was looking for the exact numbers of each gamete.Spermogenesis= 4 mature sperm cells, Oogenesis= 1 egg and 3 polar bodies 2. Looks good
3. Correct
4. That looks correct, I was just looking for a simple explanation/definition
5. Not exactly, again I was looking just in terms of its use in microarrays so hybridization is the process in which the cDNA molecules bind to the DNA probes in the slide 6. Correct
7. Correct
8. A lipoplex is a non-viral gene therapy vector. It's a combination of nucleic acid and lipids, and it's most common use is the transfer of DNA to cancer cells Your turn
1. What is the name of the process that occurs during prophase I of meiosis?
2. What is Mendel's law of independent assortment?
3. Name three differences between DNA and RNA.
4. List three types of noncoding RNA (doesn't make protein) and explain their function.
5. How is termination of transcription done in eukaryotes?
6. On what end of the tRNA does the amino acid attach to - the upper, open part or the lower, closed part?
7. How is translation initiated in eukaryotes? How is it initiated in prokaryotes?
8. What is Chargaff's rule?
island trash trees hs
anat: reg 4th
herp: reg 6th
genes: reg 5th
protein: reg 2nd
disease: reg 15th
fossils: reg 4th
2016: a&p 1st, fossils 3rd
2017: a&p 3rd, herp 14th
2018: a&p 1st, microbe 8th, herp 13th :/
pigeon YEA WE MADE STATES

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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Post by amk578 » January 15th, 2019, 12:53 pm

platypusomelette wrote: 1. What is the name of the process that occurs during prophase I of meiosis?
2. What is Mendel's law of independent assortment?
3. Name three differences between DNA and RNA.
4. List three types of noncoding RNA (doesn't make protein) and explain their function.
5. How is termination of transcription done in eukaryotes?
6. On what end of the tRNA does the amino acid attach to - the upper, open part or the lower, closed part?
7. How is translation initiated in eukaryotes? How is it initiated in prokaryotes?
8. What is Chargaff's rule?
1. Crossing-over (AKA synapsis)
2. States that genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other
3. DNA: Has a deoxyribose sugar, has a thymine nitrogenous base, double-stranded. RNA: Has a ribose sugar, has a uracil nitrogenous base, single-stranded.
4. crRNA (CRISPR RNA) gives a resistance to parasites by targeting their DNA. siRNA (small interfering RNA) is involved in gene regulation. lncRNA (long coding RNA) regulates gene transcription
5. I think RNA polymerase binds to the promoter to initiate transcription
6. Upper, open part?
7. not sure
8. Adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine. Also, in a DNA strand, there is the same amount of A as T and C as G.
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Post by platypusomelette » January 17th, 2019, 5:28 am

amk578 wrote:
platypusomelette wrote: 1. What is the name of the process that occurs during prophase I of meiosis?
2. What is Mendel's law of independent assortment?
3. Name three differences between DNA and RNA.
4. List three types of noncoding RNA (doesn't make protein) and explain their function.
5. How is termination of transcription done in eukaryotes?
6. On what end of the tRNA does the amino acid attach to - the upper, open part or the lower, closed part?
7. How is translation initiated in eukaryotes? How is it initiated in prokaryotes?
8. What is Chargaff's rule?
1. Crossing-over (AKA synapsis)
2. States that genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other
3. DNA: Has a deoxyribose sugar, has a thymine nitrogenous base, double-stranded. RNA: Has a ribose sugar, has a uracil nitrogenous base, single-stranded.
4. crRNA (CRISPR RNA) gives a resistance to parasites by targeting their DNA. siRNA (small interfering RNA) is involved in gene regulation. lncRNA (long coding RNA) regulates gene transcription
5. I think RNA polymerase binds to the promoter to initiate transcription
6. Upper, open part?
7. not sure
8. Adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine. Also, in a DNA strand, there is the same amount of A as T and C as G.
1. Correct
2. Correct
3. Correct
4. Correct
5. transcription is terminated when the polyadenylation signal is read, which creates the poly A tail. It signals nucleases to cut the RNA from the polymerase, but the polymerase continues creating RNA for a short period until the nucleases catch up to it
6. Correct
7. The small subunit of the ribosome attaches to a methionine tRNA and together they recognize a part of the mRNA upstream of the AUG. In eukaryotes they stick to the 5' cap and slide down, in prokaryotes they stick to a sequence called the shine-dalgarno sequence and slide down. Then the large subunit binds
8. Correct
Nice! your turn
island trash trees hs
anat: reg 4th
herp: reg 6th
genes: reg 5th
protein: reg 2nd
disease: reg 15th
fossils: reg 4th
2016: a&p 1st, fossils 3rd
2017: a&p 3rd, herp 14th
2018: a&p 1st, microbe 8th, herp 13th :/
pigeon YEA WE MADE STATES

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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Post by amk578 » January 21st, 2019, 9:30 am

platypusomelette wrote: 1. Correct
2. Correct
3. Correct
4. Correct
5. transcription is terminated when the polyadenylation signal is read, which creates the poly A tail. It signals nucleases to cut the RNA from the polymerase, but the polymerase continues creating RNA for a short period until the nucleases catch up to it
6. Correct
7. The small subunit of the ribosome attaches to a methionine tRNA and together they recognize a part of the mRNA upstream of the AUG. In eukaryotes they stick to the 5' cap and slide down, in prokaryotes they stick to a sequence called the shine-dalgarno sequence and slide down. Then the large subunit binds
8. Correct
Nice! your turn
1. A nucleosome has how many histone proteins?
2. Due to its shape, mitochondrial DNA resembles [eurkaryotic or prokaryotic] DNA?
3. What is the correct strand of base pairs corresponding to 5' AATGCAGGA 3' following replication?
4. In which parts of the cell do replication, transcription, and translation occur?
5. What was Phoebus Levene's contribution towards the discovery of the DNA molecule?
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Re: Heredity B/Designer Genes C

Post by platypusomelette » January 23rd, 2019, 1:38 pm

amk578 wrote:
1. A nucleosome has how many histone proteins?
2. Due to its shape, mitochondrial DNA resembles [eurkaryotic or prokaryotic] DNA?
3. What is the correct strand of base pairs corresponding to 5' AATGCAGGA 3' following replication?
4. In which parts of the cell do replication, transcription, and translation occur?
5. What was Phoebus Levene's contribution towards the discovery of the DNA molecule?
1. 8?
2. prokaryotic
3. TTACGTCCT
4. replication is in the nucleus, transcription is also in the nucleus, translation is in the ribosome
5. dunno
island trash trees hs
anat: reg 4th
herp: reg 6th
genes: reg 5th
protein: reg 2nd
disease: reg 15th
fossils: reg 4th
2016: a&p 1st, fossils 3rd
2017: a&p 3rd, herp 14th
2018: a&p 1st, microbe 8th, herp 13th :/
pigeon YEA WE MADE STATES

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