Anatomy and Physiology B/C

jxxu20
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby jxxu20 » January 29th, 2019, 1:49 pm

1. The main difference between Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is that Hodgkin's involves the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells whereas non-Hodgkin's does not.  Also, Hodgkin's is rarer and mainly affects the upper body while NH can affect almost any body part.

2. E. coli and Staphylococcus

3. Eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils

4. Usually, the heart only produces two sounds (S1 and S2).  S1 results from the closure of AV valves while S2 results from the closure of SL valves.  The S3 sound occurs after S2 and is caused by a sudden deceleration of blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle.  The S4 sound occurs just before S1 and is a result of late diastolic filling of the ventricles.
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platypusomelette
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby platypusomelette » February 1st, 2019, 3:41 am

1. The main difference between Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is that Hodgkin's involves the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells whereas non-Hodgkin's does not.  Also, Hodgkin's is rarer and mainly affects the upper body while NH can affect almost any body part.

2. E. coli and Staphylococcus

3. Eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils

4. Usually, the heart only produces two sounds (S1 and S2).  S1 results from the closure of AV valves while S2 results from the closure of SL valves.  The S3 sound occurs after S2 and is caused by a sudden deceleration of blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle.  The S4 sound occurs just before S1 and is a result of late diastolic filling of the ventricles.
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby gillio » February 6th, 2019, 11:18 am

Alrighty nobody's posted for a while so I'm gonna post.

Questions:
1. Which one needs to be treated immediately: atrial fibrillation or ventricular fibrillation? Explain why
2. Describe where Na is secreted or absorbed in the nephron.
3. What is the function of ANP(atrial natriuretic peptide) and VNP(ventricular natriuretic peptide)?
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby amk578 » February 6th, 2019, 12:20 pm

Alrighty nobody's posted for a while so I'm gonna post.

Questions:
1. Which one needs to be treated immediately: atrial fibrillation or ventricular fibrillation? Explain why
2. Describe where Na is secreted or absorbed in the nephron.
3. What is the function of ANP(atrial natriuretic peptide) and VNP(ventricular natriuretic peptide)?
1.Ventricular fibrillation because VFib can lead to cardiac arrest and/or even sudden death. VFib causes the heart to not pump enough blood for the arteries to carry through the systemic circuit (leading to unsustainability)
2. About 75-80% of sodium is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. Sodium is also reabsorbed in the distal tubule due to ADH. I'm pretty sure sodium isn't secreted.
3. ANP reduces Na permeability in response to a high blood pressure (as opposed to aldosterone enhancing permeability in response to low blood pressure). VNP also decreases sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule, and also inhibits RAAS
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gillio
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby gillio » February 6th, 2019, 5:37 pm

Alrighty nobody's posted for a while so I'm gonna post.

Questions:
1. Which one needs to be treated immediately: atrial fibrillation or ventricular fibrillation? Explain why
2. Describe where Na is secreted or absorbed in the nephron.
3. What is the function of ANP(atrial natriuretic peptide) and VNP(ventricular natriuretic peptide)?
1.Ventricular fibrillation because VFib can lead to cardiac arrest and/or even sudden death. VFib causes the heart to not pump enough blood for the arteries to carry through the systemic circuit (leading to unsustainability)
2. About 75-80% of sodium is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. Sodium is also reabsorbed in the distal tubule due to ADH. I'm pretty sure sodium isn't secreted.
3. ANP reduces Na permeability in response to a high blood pressure (as opposed to aldosterone enhancing permeability in response to low blood pressure). VNP also decreases sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule, and also inhibits RAAS
Yup, everything's good.
Quick note: sodium is reabsorbed in the ascending limb via active transport too. Your turn :D
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amk578
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby amk578 » February 6th, 2019, 9:01 pm

1.Ventricular fibrillation because VFib can lead to cardiac arrest and/or even sudden death. VFib causes the heart to not pump enough blood for the arteries to carry through the systemic circuit (leading to unsustainability)
2. About 75-80% of sodium is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. Sodium is also reabsorbed in the distal tubule due to ADH. I'm pretty sure sodium isn't secreted.
3. ANP reduces Na permeability in response to a high blood pressure (as opposed to aldosterone enhancing permeability in response to low blood pressure). VNP also decreases sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule, and also inhibits RAAS
Yup, everything's good.
Quick note: sodium is reabsorbed in the ascending limb via active transport too. Your turn :D
1. Where are vasa vasorum found and what is their purpose?
2. What is the average lifespan of RBCs? What about platelets?
3. ADH (AKA vasopressin) is a vasoconstrictor. Define vasoconstriction and list two effects of this.
4. In the spleen, what element is stored from the blood for later use?
5. What is the name of the widening at the beginning of the thoracic duct?
6. What is the tool that blood pressure is measured with?
7. In an EKG, the ___ is caused by atrial depolarization, the ____ is caused by ventricular depolarization, and the _____ is caused by ventricular repolarization.
8. What is disseminated intravascular coagulation?
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gillio
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby gillio » February 7th, 2019, 6:31 pm

1. Where are vasa vasorum found and what is their purpose?
2. What is the average lifespan of RBCs? What about platelets?
3. ADH (AKA vasopressin) is a vasoconstrictor. Define vasoconstriction and list two effects of this.
4. In the spleen, what element is stored from the blood for later use?
5. What is the name of the widening at the beginning of the thoracic duct?
6. What is the tool that blood pressure is measured with?
7. In an EKG, the ___ is caused by atrial depolarization, the ____ is caused by ventricular depolarization, and the _____ is caused by ventricular repolarization.
8. What is disseminated intravascular coagulation?
1. The branches of capillaries that supply blood to the tunica externa and give off branches to external tissues. Found in larger, more elastic arteries such as the aorta. 
2. Rbcs: about 120 days and platelets is about 8 days 
3. Vasoconstriction is basically the constriction of the blood vessels. It raises blood pressure and reduces blood flow when vessels constrict near a site of injury. 
4. iron
5. cisterna chyli 
6. sphygmomanometer(lol dont know if i spelled it right)
7. p wave, qrs complex and t wave 
8. blood clots form in smaller vessels across the body. It reduces platelet count and clotting factors, which means that blood may stop clotting at all and may result in excessive bleeding.
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amk578
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby amk578 » February 8th, 2019, 12:48 pm

1. The branches of capillaries that supply blood to the tunica externa and give off branches to external tissues. Found in larger, more elastic arteries such as the aorta. 
2. Rbcs: about 120 days and platelets is about 8 days 
3. Vasoconstriction is basically the constriction of the blood vessels. It raises blood pressure and reduces blood flow when vessels constrict near a site of injury. 
4. iron
5. cisterna chyli 
6. sphygmomanometer(lol dont know if i spelled it right)
7. p wave, qrs complex and t wave 
8. blood clots form in smaller vessels across the body. It reduces platelet count and clotting factors, which means that blood may stop clotting at all and may result in excessive bleeding.
Correct, your turn
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby gillio » February 10th, 2019, 7:55 am

1. What is the function of intercalated disks in cardiac muscle?
2. Trace the pathway of blood from the hepatic sinusoids to the right atrium.
3. What is the name of the structure that allows blood to pass between the right and left atria in utero?
4. Explain the countercurrent mechanism that occurs in the loop of Henle.
5. What is the functional difference of norepinephrine and epinephrine acting on vessels versus norepinephrine and epinephrine acting on the heart muscle? Why is this contradictory?
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Re: Anatomy and Physiology B/C

Postby Andromeda215 » February 10th, 2019, 2:35 pm

1. Quickly conduct an action potential from cardiomyocyte to cardiomyocyte
2. Sinusoids --> central vein--> hepatic vein --> inferior vena cava --> RA
3. Foramen ovale
4. Descending limb is only permeable to water. Hyperosmotic medulla makes it so that the water in filtrate at that point gets reabsorbed. Ascending limb is not water permeable, and contains active transporters and symporters that send certain ions from filtrate to medulla, creating that hyperosmotic environment that allows the water reabsorption in the descending limb to take place. 
5. In the heart epinephrine/norepinephrine binding causes faster heart rate and stronger contraction. In the vessels, the effect can vary depending on whether there's more epinephrine or norepinephrine acting (vasodilation or vasoconstriction). This is contradictory because in the heart epinephrine and norep cause the same effects, while in vessels, it's different.
Last edited by Andromeda215 on February 10th, 2019, 5:56 pm, edited 3 times in total.
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