Anatomy/Hormone List

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Hormones are part of the endocrine system, one of the systems in a rotation as part of the event Anatomy. A complete list of hormones is hard to find, as some are debatable. Nonendocrine glands do have a way of showing up on tests, so they are included.

Hormones
Hormone name Secreted by Produced by Effect Structure Mechanism Notes (if applicable)
Activin Gonads, pituitary gland, placenta Gonads, pituitary gland, placenta Enhances FSH biosynthesis and secretion; participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle; increases FSH binding and FSH-induced aromatization; participates in androgen synthesis enhancing LH action in the ovary and testis (in the male, enhances spermatogenesis); improves wound healing and enhances scar formation; regulates the morphogenesis of branching organs such as the prostate, lung, and especially kidney Dimers composed of two identical or very similar beta subunits Activin receptors I and II Total opposite of inhibin
Adiponectin (GBP-28, apM1, AdipoQ and Acrp30) Adipocytes Adipocytes Regulates metabolism of lipids, glucose; influences body's response to insulin; has anti-inflammatory effects on the cells lining the walls of blood vessels Polypeptide n/a High quantities are associated with people at a low risk for a heart attack; low levels are associated with obesity
Adrenocorticotropic hormone/corticotropin (ACTH) Anterior pituitary Corticotrope of anterior pituitary Stimulates secretion of glucocorticoids Peptide cAMP Is a response to corticotropin-releasing hormone; 'stress management’
Aldosterone Adrenal cortex Adrenal cortex Increases resorption of sodium, water; releases potassium in kidneys; increases blood pressure Steroid- mineralocortoid (representative) Direct Responds to low salt levels
Androstenedione Adrenal glands, gonads Theca cells in ovaries Provide androstenedione substrate for estrogen production in granulosa cells Steroid- sex (androgen) Direct Precursor to testosterone, sold as a muscle strengthener; however, along with granulosa cells, makes up estrogen
Angiotensinogen, angiotensin (AGT) Liver Liver Causes blood vessels to constrict and promotes sodium retention, thereby raising blood pressure; stimulates release of aldosterone Peptide IP3 Angiotensinogen is a precursor to angiotensin
Antidiuretic hormone/vasopressin (ADH) Posterior pituitary Hypothalamus Controls body's retention of water; prevents production of dilute urine; retains water in kidneys; releases ACTH Peptide Varies Also called arginine vasopressin or argipressin; secreted in response to reductions in plasma volume, increases in the plasma osmolality, and cholecystokinin by the small intestine
Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) Sertoli cells of the testes Sertoli cells of the testes Prevents development of müllerian ducts into the uterus and other müllerian structures Peptide n/a Is somewhat detectable in females after 8 years old, but after 25 declines away into barely detectable levels at menopause; is high in males throughout childhood but declines afterward
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) Cardiac myocytes of the atria of the heart Cardiac myocytes of the atria of the heart Renal: Reduces reabsorption of tubular fluid and increases excretion.; decreases sodium reabsorption; inhibits renin secretion, thereby inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system; reduces aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex. Vascular: relaxes vascular smooth muscle. Adipose: increases the release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue Peptide cGMP Is response to: atrial distention; sympathetic stimulation of β-adrenoceptors; hypernatremia; angiotensin-II; endothelin
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) Cardiac ventricles Cardiac ventricles Similar to ANP, but with a lesser effect: decreases systemic vascular resistance and central venous pressure as well as increases natriuresis Peptide n/a The net effect of BNP and ANP is a decrease in blood volume and a decrease in cardiac output
Calcitonin (CT) Parafollicular/C cells of the thyroid Parafollicular/C cells of the thyroid Inhibits Ca2+ absorption by the intestines; inhibits osteoclast activity; inhibits phosphate reabsorption by the kidney tubules; increases tubular reabsorption of Ca2+, leading to decreased rates of its loss in urine Peptide cAMP Stimulated by an increase in serum [Ca2+]; gastrin and pentagastrin
Calcitriol Proximal tubule of the nephron in the kidneys Proximal tubule of the nephron in the kidneys Increases blood calcium levels: promotes absorption of dietary calcium from GI tract; increased renal tubular reabsorption of calcium (reduces loss of calcium in urine); also stimulates release of calcium from bone; inhibits release of calcitonin Sterol Direct Active form of vitamin D3
Cholecystokinin (CCK) Mucosal epithelial cells in duodenum; neurons in the enteric nervous system Mucosal epithelial cells in duodenum; neurons in the enteric nervous system Releases digestive enzymes from pancreas; contraction of gallbladder to deliver bile Peptide n/a Stimulates digestion of fat and protein; acts as hunger suppressant
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) Hypothalamus Hypothalamus, T lymphocytes, placenta Stimulates release of corticotropin from anterior pituitary Peptide cAMP Originally called corticoliberin or corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)
Cortisol Adrenal cortex Adrenal cortex Increases blood sugar; suppresses immune system; aids in fat, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism; decreases bone formation; prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation Steroid- glucocorticoid Direct 'Stress hormone'; used to treat osteoporosis, eczema; diuretic hormone
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Zona reticularis of adrenal cortex, gonads, brain Zona reticularis of adrenal cortex, gonads, brain Virilization; anabolic Steroid- sex (androgen, neurosteroid) Direct Prohormone for sex steroids; buffer, reservoir; sometimes used as performance-enhancer, but has been proven to not work
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) Prostate gland, testes, hair follicles, and adrenal glands Prostate gland, testes, hair follicles, and adrenal glands Helps form male external genitalia as a fetus; as an adult, acts as the primary androgen in the prostate and hair follicles Steroid- sex (androgen) Direct Prohormone to sex steroids; primary contributing factor in male pattern baldness. Women with increased levels of DHT may develop certain androgynous male secondary sex characteristics, including a deepened voice and facial hair
Dopamine (DPM/PIH/DA) Hypothalamus Hypothalamus Increases heart rate, blood pressure; inhibits release of prolactin and TRH from anterior pituitary Amine- tyrosine (catecholamine) n/a Also a neurotransmitter
Endothelin (ET) Stomach Vascular endothelium Constricts blood vessels; raises blood pressure Amine- protein cGMP Formation and release are stimulated by angiotensin II, antidiuretic hormone, thrombin, cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and shearing forces acting on the vascular endothelium; releace is inhibited by prostacyclin and atrial natriuretic peptide as well as by nitric oxide
Enkephalin Posterior horn of gray matter of the spinal cord Posterior horn of gray matter of the spinal cord Regulates nociception in the body Peptide (opinoid) (endorphins) n/a Have potent opiate-like effects, probably serve as neurotransmitters
Epinephrine/adrenaline (EPI) Adrenal medulla Adrenal medulla Boosts supply of oxygen and glucose to the brain and muscles, while suppressing other non-emergency bodily processes (digestion in particular); increases heart, respiratory rate; vasoconstriction or vasodilation; stimulates glycogenolysis; triggers lipolysis Amine- tyrosine (catecholamine) n/a Is part of “fight or flight” response; also a neurotransmitter
Erythropoietin (EPO) Peritubular capillary endothelial cells in the kidney and liver Peritubular capillary endothelial cells in the kidney and liver Promotes differentiation, development of red blood cells; initiates production of hemoglobin; regulates red blood cell production; plays an important role in the brain's response to neuronal injury; is involved in the wound healing process Peptide n/a Is triggered by low oxygen levels; is prime regulator of blood cell production; cytokine for erythrocyte precursors in the bone marrow
Estradiol (E2) Ovary and testis Granulosa cells of the ovaries; also produced by the adrenal cortex, and (in men), by the testes; the brain and in arterial walls Females: Promotes formation of female secondary sex characteristics; accelerates height growth, metabolism; reduces muscle mass; stimulates endometrial growth; increases uterine growth; increases bone formation; reduces bowel motility; increases cholesterol in bile. Males: Prevents apoptosis of germ cells Steroid- sex (estrogen) Direct Is primary estrogen
Estriol/oestriol Placenta Placenta Has weak effects similar to estradiol’s Steroid- sex (estrogen) Direct Is one of three principal estrogens; in pregnant women with MS, estriol reduces the disease's symptoms noticeably; can be a weak or strong estrogen depending on if it is given acutely or chronically when given to immature animals, but is an antagonist when given with estradiol; almost always present in reproductive female body
Estrone/oestrone Ovary, adipose Ovary, adipose Has effects similar to estradiol's Steroid- sex (estrogen) Direct Is one of three principal estrogens; predominant estrogen in postmenopausal women yet the least common estrogen
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Gonadotrophs of the anterior pituitary Gonadotrophs of the anterior pituitary Both: regulates the development, growth, pubertal maturation, and reproductive processes of the human body; stimulates the maturation of germ cells. Males: induces sertoli cells to secrete inhibin; stimulates the formation of sertoli-sertoli tight junctions (zonula occludens); stimulates maturation of seminiferous tubules and spermatogenesis; enhances the production of androgen-binding protein by the Sertoli cells of the testes by binding to FSH receptors on their basolateral membranes; is critical for the initiation of spermatogenesis. Females: initiates follicular growth, specifically affecting granulosa cells. Levels fluctuate with menstrual cycle, peaking at day 3 Peptide cAMP At the end of the luteal phase, there is a slight rise in FSH that seems to be of importance to start the next ovulatory cycle; partners with LH; release controlled by pulses of GnRH
Gastrin G cells in the stomach, duodenum, and the pancreas G cells in the stomach, duodenum, and the pancreas Stimulates parietal cells of the stomach to HCl; stimulates parietal cell maturation and fundal growth; causes chief cells to secrete pepsinogen, inactive form of the digestive enzyme pepsin; increases antral muscle mobility and promotes stomach contractions; strengthens antral contractions against the pylorus, and constricts the pyloric sphincter, slowing gastric emptying; plays a role in the relaxation of the ileocecal valve; induces pancreatic secretions and gallbladder emptying; relaxes lower esophageal sphincter (LES) tone Peptide n/a Gene located on the long arm of the 17th chromosome; found primarily in three forms: gastrin-34 ("big gastrin"), gastrin-17 ("little gastrin"), gastrin-14 ("minigastrin"); pentagastrin is an artificially synthesized, five amino acid sequence identical to the last five amino acid sequence at the C-terminus end of gastrin – the numbers refer to the amino acid count. Released in response to certain stimuli: stomach distension; vagal stimulation (mediated by the neurocrine bombesin, or GRP in humans); the presence of partially digested proteins; hypercalcemia. Release inhibited by: the presence of acid in the stomach; somatostatin; gastrin; secretin; GIP (gastroinhibitory peptide); VIP; glucagon; calcitonin
Ghrelin P/D1 cells lining the fundus of the human stomach and epsilon cells of the pancreas; the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus P/D1 cells lining the fundus of the human stomach and epsilon cells of the pancreas; the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus Promotes intestinal cell proliferation; inhibits GI apoptosis during inflammatory states and oxidative stress; suppresses the pro-inflammatory mechanisms of GI; augments GI anti-inflammatory mechanisms; enhances the motility of gastrointestinal tract, as does motilin; promotes gastrointestinal and pancreatic malignancy. In fetuses, it seems that it is produced early by the lung and promotes growth Peptide n/a Is counterpart of leptin; exists as an endocrinological inactive (pure peptide) and an active (octanoylated) form
Glucagon (GCG) α-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas α-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas Maintains level of glucose in the blood; turns off glycolysis in the liver; regulates the rate of glucose production through lipolysis; stimulates insulin production Peptide cAMP Discovered by Kimball and Murlin; has structure of NH2-His-Ser-Gln-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Tyr-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Asp-Ser- Arg-Arg-Ala-Gln-Asp-Phe-Val-Gln-Trp-Leu-Met-Asn-Thr-COOH
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) Preoptic area of the hypothalamus Preoptic area of the hypothalamus, hypophysial portal bloodstream at the median eminence Stimulates the synthesis and secretion of FSH and LH; controls follicular growth, ovulation, and corpus luteum maintenance in the female; spermatogenesis in the male Peptide IP3 Neurohormone; in males, secreted in pulses at a constant frequency; but in females, the frequency of the pulses varies during the menstrual cycle, and there is a large surge of GnRH just before ovulation; pulsatile for all vertebrates; very low during childhood – activated at puberty; stimulated by LH, kisspeptin; found in cancers of the breast, ovary, prostate, and endometrium
Growth hormone (GH/HGH) Somatotroph cells within lateral wings of anterior pituitary Somatotroph cells within lateral wings of anterior pituitary Effects can generally be described as anabolic. Increased height during childhood and adolescence; increases calcium retention; strengthens and increases mineralization of bone; increases muscle mass via sarcomere hyperplasia; promotes lipolysis; increases protein synthesis; stimulates the growth of all internal organs excluding the brain; plays a role in homeostasis; reduces liver uptake of glucose; promotes gluconeogenesis in liver; contributes to the maintenance and function of pancreatic islets; stimulates the immune system Protein-based peptide Stimulates growth via MAPK/ERK, JAK/STAT Natural growth hormone. Secretion include peptide hormones; GHRH through binding to the growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR); ghrelin through binding to growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHSR); sex hormones; increased androgen secretion during puberty (males from testis and females from adrenal cortex); estrogen; clonidine and L-DOPA by stimulating GHRH release; hypoglycemia, arginine, propranolol by inhibiting somatostatin release; deep sleep; fasting; vigorous exercise. Inhibitors of GH secretion include somatostatin from the periventricular nucleus; circulating concentrations of GH and IGF-1 (negative feedback on the pituitary and hypothalamus); hyperglycemia; glucocorticoids; dihydrotestosterone.
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)/somatocrinin Arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus Arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus Stimulates GH production and release by binding to the GHRH receptor on cells in the anterior pituitary Amino acid peptide cAMP, IP3 Neurohormone; Tyr-Ala-Asp-Ala-Ile-Phe-Thr-Asn-Ser-Tyr-Arg-Lys-Val-Leu-Gly-Gln-Leu-Ser-Ala-Arg-Lys-Leu-Leu-Gln-Asp-Ile-Met-Ser-Arg-Gln-Gln-Gly-Glu-Ser-Asn-Gln-Glu-Arg-Gly-Ala-Arg-Ala-Arg-Leu-NH2
Histamine Granules in mast cells (especially numerous at sites of potential injury) or in basophils Granules in mast cells (especially numerous at sites of potential injury) or in basophils; non-mast cell histamine is found in several tissues, including the brain, where it is a neurotransmitter; enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell of the stomach Bronchoconstriction, bronchial smooth muscle contraction, separation of endothelial cells (responsible for hives), and pain and itching due to insect stings; the primary receptors involved in allergic rhinitis symptoms and motion sickness; sleep regulation; vasodilation; stimulates gastric acid secretion; decreased neurotransmitter release: histamine, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, serotonin; plays a role in chemotaxis Amine- histidine H1histamine receptor (muscle, endothelium, CNS tissue); H2histamine receptor (parietal, vascular smooth muscle cells); H3histamine receptor (CNS and to a lesser extent PNS tissue); H4histamine receptor (basophils, bone marrow, thymus, intestine, spleen, colon) Formula: C5H9N3. “H substance”/”substance H”
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) Developing embryo after conception and later by syncytiotrophoblast (part of placenta) Produced in pregnancy; made by the developing embryo after conception and later by syncytiotrophoblast (part of placenta) Interacts with LHCG receptor; promotes maintenance of corpus luteum during beginning of pregnancy, causing it to secrete progesterone; may repel immune cells of the mother, protecting fetus during 1st trimester; may be a placental link for development of local maternal immunotolerance; plays a role in cellular differentiation/proliferation and may activate apoptosis Glycoprotein cAMP Used as a tumor marker, for fertility, weight loss, and as an anabolic steroid
Human placental lactogen (HPL)/human chorionic somatomammotropin Placenta n/a Affects the metabolic system of the maternal organism; decreases maternal insulin sensitivity, raising maternal blood glucose levels while decreasing maternal glucose utilization, ensuring adequate fetal nutrition; increases production of insulin; increases insulin resistance and carbohydrate intolerance; facilitates energy supply of fetus Polypeptide n/a Is similar to HGH; in a bioassay, mimics the action of prolactin (it is unclear whether it has any role in lactation); chronic hypoglycemia leads to its level rising
Inhibin Gonads (granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles; Sertoli cells of testes), pituitary gland, placenta Gonads (granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles; Sertoli cells of testes), pituitary gland, placenta Suppresses FSH synthesis; inhibits FSH secretion/production and GnRH release from the hypothalamus Dimers composed of two similar beta subunits Unknown Inhibin B reaches a peak in the early- to mid-follicular phase, and a second peak at ovulation; inhibin A reaches its peak in the mid-luteal phase. Secretion is diminished by GnRH, enhanced by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1); production stimulated by androgens
Insulin Pancreas within the β-cells of the islets of Langerhans Pancreas within the β-cells of the islets of Langerhans Controls cellular intake of certain substances (mostly glucose in muscle and adipose tissue); increases DNA replication and protein synthesis via control of amino acid uptake; modifies the activity of numerous enzymes; forces storage of glucose in liver (and muscle) cells in the form of glycogen; forces fat cells to take in blood lipids, which are converted to triglycerides; forces adipose tissue to make fats (i.e., triglycerides) from fatty acid esters; decreases breakdown of protein; reduction in conversion of fat cell lipid stores into blood fatty acids; decreases production of glucose from non-sugar substrates, primarily in the liver; decreases level of degradation of damaged organelles; forces cells to absorb circulating amino acids; forces cells to absorb serum potassium; forces arterial wall muscle to relax, increasing blood flow, especially in micro arteries; increases secretion of hydrochloric acid by parietal cells in the stomach Peptide Tyrosine kinase Low levels cause diabetes mellitus
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) Hepatocytes of liver Hepatocytes of liver Acts as a neurotrophic factor, inducing the survival of neurons; causes skeletal muscle hypertrophy by inducing protein synthesis and blocking muscle atrophy; protective for cartilage cells; associated with activation of osteocytes, and thus may be an anabolic factor for bone; at high concentrations, capable of activating the insulin receptor, it can also complement for the effects of insulin; regulates neural development including neurogenesis, myelination, synaptogenesis, and dendritic branching and neuroprotection after neuronal damage; shapes the development of the cochlea; controls apoptosis Polypeptide Tyrosine kinase Stimulated by growth hormone; very similar to insulin
Leptin (LEP) White adipose tissue (mostly); brown adipose tissue; placenta (syncytiotrophoblasts); ovaries; skeletal muscle; stomach (lower part of fundic glands); mammary epithelial cells; bone marrow; pituitary; liver; gastric chief, P/D1 cells in stomach Inhibits appetite (counteracts effects of NPY, anandamide (potent feeding stimulant) (inhibition is long-term); promotes the synthesis of α-MSH (appetite suppressant) Peptide n/a Is response to fatty foods; absence leads to uncontrolled food intake and subsequent obesity; levels directly proportional to total amount of fat in body; from Greek leptos (thin)
Leukotrienes Leukocytes (mast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes, cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes, basophils) Leukocytes (mast cells, eosinophila, neutrophils, monocytes, basophils) Are involved in asthmatic and allergic reactions; act to sustain inflammatory reactions; have a chemotactic effect on migrating neutrophils; have a powerful effect in bronchoconstriction and increase vascular permeability Eicosanoid Synthesized from arachindonic acid by 5-lipoxygenase Contributes to inflammation in asthma and bronchitis
Lipotropin Anterior pituitary Anterior pituitary Stimulates melanocytes to produce melanin; lipolysis; steroidogenesis Polypeptide Produced by the cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) (AP produces the POMC, which undergoes cleavage to ACTH and β-lipotropin) γ-lipotropin (56 amino acids), α-MSH, β-MSH, γ-MSH, α-endorphin, β-endorphin, γ-endorphin, and met-enkephalin are all possible fragments of β-lipotropin
Luteinizing hormone (LH) n/a n/a Female: Ovulation. Males: Stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone Peptide cAMP n/a
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) Intermediate pituitary Intermediate pituitary Stimulates production and release of melanin by melanocytes in skin and hair; will cause a darkening in humans too Peptide cAMP Increases in humans during pregnancy; in people who cannot tan/have red hair, the variance is in the hormone receptor, making them unresponsive to MSH
Melatonin Pineal Liver (mostly), urine, saliva Forms part of the system that regulates the sleep-wake cycle by chemically causing drowsiness and lowering the body temperature; promotes sleepiness; exerts a powerful antioxidant activity; prevent the damage to DNA by some carcinogens; interacts with the immune system (how remains unclear) Amine- tryptophan n/a Infants' levels become regular in about the third month after birth, with the highest levels measured between midnight and 8 AM; production decreases as a person ages; production inhibited by light and permitted by darkness (“hormone of darkness”); onset each evening called the Dim-Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO); secretion, levels of of melatonin peak in the middle of the night, and gradually falls during the second half of the night; blue light around 460 to 480 nm, suppresses melatonin; levels high in those with vivid dreaming and hallucinations; autistic individuals may have lower than normal levels of melatonin; C13H16N2O2
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Hypothalamus Hypothalamus Regulates energy balance, memory and learning, epilepsy; increases food intake; decreases physical activity; increases proportion of energy stored as fat; blocks nociceptive signals to brain; augments vasoconstrictor effects of noradrenergic neurons Peptide neurotransmitter NPY receptors Associated with obesity, anorexia nervosa
Norepinephrine/noradrenaline (NE/NA) Adrenal medulla Adrenal medulla and postganglionic neurons of sympathetic nervous system Increases heart rate; triggers release of glucose from energy stores; increases blood flow to skeletal muscle; increases the brain's oxygen supply; suppresses neuroinflammation when released in the brain from the locus ceruleus Amine- tyrosine (catecholamine) Adrenergic receptors Part of fight-or-flight response; neurotransmitter; stress hormone; synthesized from dopamine
Orexin/hypocretins Lateral and posterior hypothalamus Lateral and posterior hypothalamus Promotes wakefulness, increases body temperature, locomotion and elicits a strong increase in energy expenditure; increases the craving for food, and correlates with the function of the substances that promote its production; very important link between metabolism and sleep regulation Neuropeptide n/a Linked to Alzheimer’s
Oxytocin Posterior pituitary Magnocellular neurosecretory cells of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus Letdown reflex; uterine contraction during labor; sexual arousal; feelings of contentment, reductions in anxiety, and feelings of calmness and security around mate; human bonding and decrease in fear; can reduce excretion of urine slightly; indirectly inhibits release of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol; reduces trust of strangers; increases cultural and racial bias; emotional bonding; maternal behavior; prepares fetal neurons for delivery to placenta Peptide (cys-tyr-ile-gln-asn-cys-pro-leu-gly) n/a Triggered by cervical/uterine stretching, suckling of infant
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Parathyroid Parathyroid Enhances release of calcium from bones; enhances active reabsorption of calcium and magnesium from distal tubules into kidney; increases the excretion of phosphate, with a net loss in plasma phosphate concentration; enhances the absorption of calcium in the intestine by increasing the production of activated vitamin D; increases breakdown of bone by osteoclasts Peptide cAMP Controlled by negative feedback; opposite of calcitonin
Progesterone (P4) Ovary, adrenal glands, placenta Ovary, adrenal glands, placenta Converts endometrium to its secretory stage to prepare the uterus for implantation; affects the vaginal epithelium and cervical mucus, making it thick and impenetrable to sperm; decreases maternal immune response to allow for the acceptance of the pregnancy; contractility of the uterine smooth muscle; inhibits lactation during pregnancy; raises epidermal growth factor-1 levels, a factor often used to induce and sustain stem cells; increases core temperature during ovulation; reduces spasm; relaxes smooth muscle; widens bronchi; regulates mucus; acts as an anti-inflammatory agent; regulates immune response; reduces gall-bladder activity; normalizes blood clotting and vascular tone, zinc and copper levels, cell oxygen levels, and use of fat stores for energy; may affect gum health, increasing risk of gingivitis and tooth decay; regulates effects of estrogen Steroid- sex (progestagen) Direct Pregnancy hormone
Prolactin (PRL)/luteotropic hormone (LTH) Hypothalamus, anterior pituitary Lactotropes Regulates lactation; stimulates proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells; stimulates the mammary glands for lactation; sexual gratification (counteracts effect of dopamine, which is responsible for sexual arousal); stimulates proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells; contributes to surfactant synthesis of the fetal lungs at the end of the pregnancy and immune tolerance of the fetus by the mo during pregnancy; decreases normal levels of sex hormones (estrogen in women and testosterone in men); enhances LH-receptors in Leydig cells, resulting in testosterone secretion, which leads to spermatogenesis; delays hair regrowth in mice; promotes neurogenesis Single-chain polypeptide Prolactin receptor Inhibited by dopamine; supported by TRH, GRH
Prostacyclin (PGI2) Endothelial cells Endothelial cells Prevents formation of the platelet plug involved in primary hemostasis; inhibits platelet activation; is an effective vasodilator Eicosanoid cAMP “Epoprostenol” as a drug
Relaxin (RLN) Female: corpus luteum of ovary; breast; placenta; chorion; decidua. Male: prostate Female: corpus luteum of ovary; breast; placenta; chorion; decidua. Male: prostate; semen Enhances motility of sperm in males Peptide Receptors Belongs in the insulin superfamily
Renin/angiotensinogenase Kidney cells (of the afferent arterioles) Granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidney Mediates extracellular volume (blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid), arterial vasoconstriction; regulates the body's mean arterial blood pressure Peptide (406 amino acids) Circulates in bloodstream and breaks down Stimulated by a decrease in arterial blood pressure; a decrease in sodium chloride levels in the ultra-filtrate of the nephron; and sympathetic nervous system activity
Secretin (SCT) Duodenum Cytoplasmic secretory granules of S-cells (mainly in mucosa of duodenum, and less so in jejunum of small intestine) Increases watery bicarbonate solution from pancreatic duct epithelium; increases water and bicarbonate secretion from duodenal Brunner's glands; enhances effects of cholecystokinin to induce secretion of digestive enzymes and bile from pancreas and gallbladder, respectively; counteracts blood glucose concentration spikes by triggering increased insulin release from pancreas, following oral glucoseintake; inhibits gastrin release from stomach; reduces acid secretion from stomach; stimulates pepsin secretion from chief cells, which can help break down proteins in food digestion; stimulates release of glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide and somatostatin Peptide n/a Discovered by William Bayless in 1902, who coined the term ‘hormone’ in 1905
Serotonin/ 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) Enterochromaffin cells in the gut Enterochromaffin cells in the gut; serotonergic neurons in the CNS Regulates mood, appetite, sleep, muscle contractions, memory, and learning; mediates gut movements, perception of resource availability; functions as a neurotransmitter; activates muscles used for feeding; suppresses insulin release from the beta cells in the pancreas; acts as a growth factor; stimulates cellular growth to repair liver damage; activates osteoblasts and osteoclasts Amine-tryptophan Serotonylation Neurotransmitter; found in all bilateral animals; levels affected by diet; released in response to food in lumen
Somatostatin (SRIF) Stomach; intestine; delta cells of the pancreas Neuroendocrine neurons of the periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus; arcuate nucleus; hippocampus; brainstem nucleus of solitary tract Inhibits release of GH; inhibits release of TSH; inhibits adenylyl cyclase in parietal cells; suppresses release of gastrointestinal hormones (gastrin; CCK; SCT; motilin; vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP); gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP); enteroglucagon); decreases rate of gastric emptying; reduces smooth muscle contractions and blood flow within intestine; suppresses release of pancreatic hormones; inhibits insulin release when released from delta cells of pancreas; inhibits release of glucagon; suppresses exocrine secretory action of pancreas Inhibitory peptide n/a n/a
Testosterone Testes of males and ovaries of females; small amounts by adrenal glands Testes of males and ovaries of females; small amounts by adrenal glands Promotes protein synthesis and growth of those tissues with androgen receptors; builds up bone and muscle mass; stimulates linear growth and bone maturation; matures sex organs (particularly penis and scrotum in fetus, and at puberty a deepening of voice, growth of beard and axillary hair); genital virilization; develops prostate and seminal vesicles; adult-type body odor; increased oiliness of skin, hair; acne; appearance of pubic hair; axillary hair; growth spurt; accelerated bone maturation; hair on upper lip and sideburns; enlargement of sebaceous glands; phallic enlargement; increased libido and frequency of erection; pubic hair growth; facial hair; balding; chest, leg, axillary hair; subcutaneous fat in face decreases; increased muscle strength and mass; deepens of voice; growth of Adam's apple; growth of spermatogenic tissue in testicles, male fertility; growth of jaw, brow, chin, nose, and remodeling of facial bone contours; shoulders become broader and rib cage expands; completes bone maturation and termination of growth Steroid- sex (androgen) Direct “Manly” hormone
Thrombopoietin (TPO) Liver: parenchymal, sinusoidal endothelial cells; kidney: proximal convoluted tubule cells; striated muscle; stromal cells in bone marrow Liver: parenchymal, sinusoidal endothelial cells; kidney: proximal convoluted tubule cells; striated muscle; stromal cells in bone marrow Regulates the differentiation of megakaryocytes, platelets; produces platelets Peptide n/a n/a
Thromboxane (TXA2) Platelets Platelets A vasoconstrictor, potent hypertensive agent; facilitates platelet aggregation Eicosanoid Receptors n/a
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary Thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary Stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete T4 and T3 Peptide cAMP n/a
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) Hypothalamus in medial neurons of the paraventricular nucleus Hypothalamus in medial neurons of the paraventricular nucleus Stimulates the release of TSH Peptide IP3 n/a
Thyroxine (T4)/ triiodothyronine (T3) Follicular cells of thyroid Follicular cells of thyroid Increases basal metabolic rate; stimulates production of RNA Polymerase I and II; increases rate of protein synthesis; increases rate of protein degradation; potentiates effects of β-adrenergic receptors on metabolism of glucose; increases rate of glycogen breakdown and glucose synthesis in gluconeogenesis; potentiates effects of insulin; stimulates breakdown of cholesterol; increases number of LDL receptors; increasing rate of lipolysis; increases heart rate and force of contraction; increases cardiac output; increases systolic blood pressure; decreases diastolic blood pressure; affects lungs; influences postnatal growth of central nervous system; stimulates production of myelin, neurotransmitters, axon growth; important in linear growth of bones Amine- tyrosine Direct n/a