Invasive Species List/Aquatic Plants

From Science Olympiad Student Center Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
Incomplete.jpg
This page is incomplete. It does not cover all important aspects of this subject. Please keep this in mind when reading the page and add relevant information if possible.

This page contains information on aquatic plant species on the Invasive Species List. For more general information about the event, see Invasive Species.

Aquatic Plants

Alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides)

  • Taxonomy:Kingdom-Plantae; (Unranked)-Angiosperms; (Unranked)-Eudicots; (Unranked)-Core eudicots; Order-Caryophyllales; Family-Amaranthaceae; Genus-Alternanthera; Species-A. philoxeroides

Identification Tips:

Anatomy:

  • Leaves: Opposite; no petiole; elliptically shaped
  • Flowers: Flower spike; no petals; five white or colorless sepals; white; cloverlike;
  • Fruit:
  • Seeds: One seed per flower
  • Misc/General: Hollow stems;
  • Adaptive anatomy:

Introduction:

  • How introduced: Where/when: Ballast water; Alabama, 1987;
  • How spread:

Life Cycle:

  • Seed:
  • Adult

Reproduction:

  • General Reproduction:
  • What makes it so good at reproducing?:

Ecology:

  • Behavior:
  • Niche:
  • Trophic Level:

Native habitat:

  • Characteristics of said habitat:

Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat): Southeastern US, California

  • Characteristics of new habitat: Damp soil in shallow standing water;

Preventative measures:

  • Laws and effectiveness:
  • Control measures and effectiveness:
  • Damage (why it’s a problem): Dense mats crowd out native species; impede recreational activities like boating, swimming, fishing;

Brazilian Waterweed (Egeria densa)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Plantae; (Unranked)-Angiosperms; (Unranked)-Monocots; Order-Alismatales; Family-Hydrocharitaceae; Genus-Egeria; Species-E. dense

Identification Tips: Bright green; bushy;

Anatomy:

  • Leaves: Bright green; four leaves per whorl;
  • Flowers: Three petaled; white flowers;
  • Fruit:
  • Seeds:
  • Misc/General:
  • Adaptive anatomy:

Introduction:

  • How introduced: Where/when: Aquarium trade; Long Island, 1893;
  • How spread:

Life Cycle:

  • Seed:
  • Adult

Reproduction:

  • General Reproduction:
  • What makes it so good at reproducing?:

Ecology:

  • Behavior:
  • Niche:
  • Trophic Level:

Native habitat:

  • Characteristics of said habitat:

Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):

  • Characteristics of new habitat:

Preventative measures:

  • Laws and effectiveness:
  • Control measures and effectiveness: Cleaning boats when exiting water;
  • Damage (why it’s a problem): Crowds out native species; dense mats impede recreation

Caulerpa, Mediterranean Clone (Caulerpa taxifolia)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Protista; Division-Chlorophyta; Class-Bryopsidophyceae; Order-Bryopsidales; Family-Caulerpaceae; Genus-Caulerpa; Species-C. taxifolia

Identification Tips:

Anatomy: Feathery branches; rubbery;

  • Leaves: Small;
  • Flowers:
  • Fruit:
  • Seeds:
  • Misc/General:
  • Adaptive anatomy:

Introduction:

  • How introduced: Where/when: Through the aquarium trade; 2000;
  • How spread:

Life Cycle:

  • Seed:
  • Adult

Reproduction:

  • General Reproduction:
  • What makes it so good at reproducing?:

Ecology:

  • Behavior:
  • Niche:
  • Trophic Level:

Native habitat:

  • Characteristics of said habitat:

Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):

  • Characteristics of new habitat:

Preventative measures:

  • Laws and effectiveness:
  • Control measures and effectiveness:
  • Damage (why it’s a problem): Crowds out native species; toxic (but not to humans);

Common Reed (Phragmites australis)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Plantae; (Unranked)-Angiosperms; (Unranked)-Monocots; (Unranked)-Commelinids; Order-Poales; Family-Poaceae; Subfamily-Arundinoideae; Tribe-Arundineae; Genus-Phragmites; Species-P. australis

Identification Tips:

Anatomy:

  • Leaves: Elongate
  • Flowers: Bushy; purple or golden;
  • Fruit:
  • Seeds:
  • Misc/General:
  • Adaptive anatomy:

Introduction:

  • How introduced: Where/when: Ballast water; 18th or 19th century;
  • How spread:

Life Cycle:

  • Seed:
  • Adult

Reproduction:

  • General Reproduction:
  • What makes it so good at reproducing?:

Ecology:

  • Behavior:
  • Niche:
  • Trophic Level:

Native habitat:

  • Characteristics of said habitat:

Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):

  • Characteristics of new habitat:

Preventative measures:

  • Laws and effectiveness:
  • Control measures and effectiveness: Glyphosate; fire;
  • Damage (why it’s a problem): Crowds out native plants; blocks out light;

Curly Pondweed (Potamogeton crispus)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Plantae; (Unranked)-Angiosperms; (Unranked)-Monocots; Order-Alismatales; Family-Potamogetonaceae; Genus-Potamogeton; Species-P. crisps

Identification Tips:

Anatomy:

  • Leaves: Undulating; finely serrated; oblong; blue-green;
  • Flowers: Arranged on dense terminal spikes that rise a few inches above the surface of the water
  • Fruit:
  • Seeds:
  • Misc/General: Good waterfowl vegetation; turions bear appearance of small green/brown pinecones;
  • Adaptive anatomy: Strong rhizome anchoring system

Introduction:

  • How introduced: Where/when: Introduced in US waters by hobbyists in mid 1800s;
  • How spread:

Life Cycle: Generally first pondweed to emerge in spring, dies in mid-summer; actively grows in winter

  • Seed:
  • Adult

Reproduction:

  • General Reproduction:
  • What makes it so good at reproducing?:

Ecology:

  • Behavior:
  • Niche:
  • Trophic Level:

Native habitat:

  • Characteristics of said habitat:

Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):

  • Characteristics of new habitat:

Preventative measures:

  • Laws and effectiveness:
  • Control measures and effectiveness:
  • Damage (why it’s a problem): Dense mats interfere with recreation; reduces oxygen levels

Rock Snot (Didymosphenia geminata)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Chromalveolata; Phylum-Heterokontophyta; Class-Bacillariophyceae; Order-Cymbellales; Family-Gomphonemataceae; Genus-Didymosphenia; Species-D. geminata

Identification Tips:

Anatomy:

  • Leaves:
  • Flowers:
  • Fruit:
  • Seeds:
  • Misc/General:
  • Adaptive anatomy:

Introduction:

  • How introduced: Where/when:
  • How spread:

Life Cycle:

  • Seed:
  • Adult

Reproduction:

  • General Reproduction:
  • What makes it so good at reproducing?:

Ecology:

  • Behavior:
  • Niche:
  • Trophic Level:

Native habitat:

  • Characteristics of said habitat:

Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):

  • Characteristics of new habitat:

Preventative measures:

  • Laws and effectiveness:
  • Control measures and effectiveness:
  • Damage (why it’s a problem):

Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Plantae; (Unranked)-Angiosperms; (Unranked)-Eudicots; (Unranked)-Core eudicots; Order-Saxifragales; Family-Haloragaceae; Genus-Myriophyllum; Species-M. spicatum

Identification Tips:

Anatomy:

  • Leaves:
  • Flowers:
  • Fruit:
  • Seeds:
  • Misc/General:
  • Adaptive anatomy:

Introduction:

  • How introduced: Where/when:
  • How spread:

Life Cycle:

  • Seed:
  • Adult

Reproduction:

  • General Reproduction:
  • What makes it so good at reproducing?:

Ecology:

  • Behavior:
  • Niche:
  • Trophic Level:

Native habitat:

  • Characteristics of said habitat:

Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):

  • Characteristics of new habitat:

Preventative measures:

  • Laws and effectiveness:
  • Control measures and effectiveness:
  • Damage (why it’s a problem):

Giant Reed (Arundo donax)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Plantae; (Unranked)-Angiosperms; (Unranked)-Monocots; (Unranked)-Commelinids; Order-Poales; Family-Poaceae; Subfamily-Arundinoideae; Tribe-Arundineae; Genus-Arundo; Species-A. donax

Identification Tips:

Anatomy:

  • Leaves:
  • Flowers:
  • Fruit:
  • Seeds:
  • Misc/General:
  • Adaptive anatomy:

Introduction:

  • How introduced: Where/when:
  • How spread:

Life Cycle:

  • Seed:
  • Adult

Reproduction:

  • General Reproduction:
  • What makes it so good at reproducing?:

Ecology:

  • Behavior:
  • Niche:
  • Trophic Level:

Native habitat:

  • Characteristics of said habitat:

Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):

  • Characteristics of new habitat:

Preventative measures:

  • Laws and effectiveness:
  • Control measures and effectiveness:
  • Damage (why it’s a problem):

Giant Salvinia (Salvinia molesta)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Plantae; Division-Pteridophyta; Class-Polypodiopsida / Pteridopsida (disputed); Order-Salviniales; Family-Salviniaceae; Genus-Salvinia; Species-S. molesta

Identification Tips:

Anatomy:

  • Leaves:
  • Flowers:
  • Fruit:
  • Seeds:
  • Misc/General:
  • Adaptive anatomy:

Introduction:

  • How introduced: Where/when:
  • How spread:

Life Cycle:

  • Seed:
  • Adult

Reproduction:

  • General Reproduction:
  • What makes it so good at reproducing?:

Ecology:

  • Behavior:
  • Niche:
  • Trophic Level:

Native habitat:

  • Characteristics of said habitat:

Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):

  • Characteristics of new habitat:

Preventative measures:

  • Laws and effectiveness:
  • Control measures and effectiveness:
  • Damage (why it’s a problem):

Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Plantae; (Unranked)-Monocots; Class-Liliopsida; Order-Alismatales; Family-Hydrocharitaceae; Genus-Hydrilla; Species-H. verticillata

Identification Tips:

Anatomy:

  • Leaves:
  • Flowers:
  • Fruit:
  • Seeds:
  • Misc/General:
  • Adaptive anatomy:

Introduction:

  • How introduced: Where/when:
  • How spread:

Life Cycle:

  • Seed:
  • Adult

Reproduction:

  • General Reproduction:
  • What makes it so good at reproducing?:

Ecology:

  • Behavior:
  • Niche:
  • Trophic Level:

Native habitat:

  • Characteristics of said habitat:

Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):

  • Characteristics of new habitat:

Preventative measures:

  • Laws and effectiveness:
  • Control measures and effectiveness:
  • Damage (why it’s a problem):

Melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Plantae; (Unranked)-Angiosperms; (Unranked)-Eudicots; (Unranked)-Rosids; Order-Myrtales; Family-Myrtaceae; Genus-Melaleuca; Species-M. quinquenervia

Identification Tips:

Anatomy:

  • Leaves:
  • Flowers:
  • Fruit:
  • Seeds:
  • Misc/General:
  • Adaptive anatomy:

Introduction:

  • How introduced: Where/when:
  • How spread:

Life Cycle:

  • Seed:
  • Adult

Reproduction:

  • General Reproduction:
  • What makes it so good at reproducing?:

Ecology:

  • Behavior:
  • Niche:
  • Trophic Level:

Native habitat:

  • Characteristics of said habitat:

Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):

  • Characteristics of new habitat:

Preventative measures:

  • Laws and effectiveness:
  • Control measures and effectiveness:
  • Damage (why it’s a problem):

Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Plantae; (Unranked)-Angiosperms; (Unranked)-Eudicots; Order-Myrtales; Family-Lythraceae; Genus-Lythrum; Species-L. salicaria

Identification Tips:

Anatomy:

  • Leaves:
  • Flowers:
  • Fruit:
  • Seeds:
  • Misc/General:
  • Adaptive anatomy:

Introduction:

  • How introduced: Where/when:
  • How spread:

Life Cycle:

  • Seed:
  • Adult

Reproduction:

  • General Reproduction:
  • What makes it so good at reproducing?:

Ecology:

  • Behavior:
  • Niche:
  • Trophic Level:

Native habitat:

  • Characteristics of said habitat:

Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):

  • Characteristics of new habitat:

Preventative measures:

  • Laws and effectiveness:
  • Control measures and effectiveness:
  • Damage (why it’s a problem):

Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Plantae; (Unranked)-Monocots; (Unranked)-Commelinids; Order-Commelinales; Family-Pontederiaceae; Genus-Eichhornia; Species-E. crassipes

Identification Tips:

Anatomy:

  • Leaves:
  • Flowers:
  • Fruit:
  • Seeds:
  • Misc/General:
  • Adaptive anatomy:

Introduction:

  • How introduced: Where/when:
  • How spread:

Life Cycle:

  • Seed:
  • Adult

Reproduction:

  • General Reproduction:
  • What makes it so good at reproducing?:

Ecology:

  • Behavior:
  • Niche:
  • Trophic Level:

Native habitat:

  • Characteristics of said habitat:

Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):

  • Characteristics of new habitat:

Preventative measures:

  • Laws and effectiveness:
  • Control measures and effectiveness:
  • Damage (why it’s a problem):

Water Lettuce (Pistia stratiotes)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Plantae; (Unranked)-Angiosperms; (Unranked)-Monocots; Order-Alismatales; Family-Araceae; Subfamily-Aroideae; Tribe-Pistieae; Genus-Pistia; Species-P. stratiotes

Identification Tips:

Anatomy:

  • Leaves:
  • Flowers:
  • Fruit:
  • Seeds:
  • Misc/General:
  • Adaptive anatomy:

Introduction:

  • How introduced: Where/when:
  • How spread:

Life Cycle:

  • Seed:
  • Adult

Reproduction:

  • General Reproduction:
  • What makes it so good at reproducing?:

Ecology:

  • Behavior:
  • Niche:
  • Trophic Level:

Native habitat:

  • Characteristics of said habitat:

Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):

  • Characteristics of new habitat:

Preventative measures:

  • Laws and effectiveness:
  • Control measures and effectiveness:
  • Damage (why it’s a problem):

Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatica)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Plantae; (Unranked)-Angiosperms; (Unranked)-Eudicots; (Unranked)-Asterids; Order-Solanales; Family-Convolvulaceae; Genus-Ipomoea; Species-I. aquatica

Identification Tips:

Anatomy:

  • Leaves:
  • Flowers:
  • Fruit:
  • Seeds:
  • Misc/General:
  • Adaptive anatomy:

Introduction:

  • How introduced: Where/when:
  • How spread:

Life Cycle:

  • Seed:
  • Adult

Reproduction:

  • General Reproduction:
  • What makes it so good at reproducing?:

Ecology:

  • Behavior:
  • Niche:
  • Trophic Level:

Native habitat:

  • Characteristics of said habitat:

Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):

  • Characteristics of new habitat:

Preventative measures:

  • Laws and effectiveness:
  • Control measures and effectiveness:
  • Damage (why it’s a problem):