Invasive Species List/Invertebrates

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This page contains information on invertebrate species on the Invasive Species List. For more general information about the event, see Invasive Species.

Invertebrate Species

Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri)

AsianCitrusPsyllid1.jpg

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Hemiptera; Suborder-Sternorrhyncha; Superfamily-Psylloidea; Family-Psyllidae; Genus-Diaphorina; Species-D. citri
  • Identification: The Asian citrus psyllid can be identified by its mottled brown wings around the outer edge, which are broken by a clear stripe. It also has red eyes and short antennae. Similar species: Adult African citrus psyllids have front wings pointed at the tip. All four wings are clear and unspotted, but Adult Asian citrus psyllids have front wings that are widest near the tip and can have either transparent wings with white spots or light brown wings with a central beige band
  • Damage: Nymphs feed on new leaves and shoots, and can also infect the citrus tree with Huanglongbing, or HLB. The tree affected produces fruit low in solubles, high in acids, and bitter. When the fruit matures, the fruit has a green color on the navel end, which was the origin of the alternative name for HLB: citrus greening disease.
  • Life Cycle: Eggs are laid on tips of growing shoots on and between unfurling leaves. Females may lay more than 800 eggs during their lives. Nymphs pass through five instars. The total life cycle is about 15 to 47 days, depending upon the season. Adults may live for several months. There is no diapause, but populations are low in winter (the dry season). There are nine to 10 generations a year.
  • Region/Origin and Year of Introduction: The Asian citrus psyllid is widely found in southern Asia. It was first detected in June, 1998 on the east coast of Florida.
  • State or body of water first detected: As stated above, the east coast of Florida.
  • How it was introduced: The Asian citrus psyllid is theorized to have arrived on imported plants.
  • Transport: The Asian citrus psyllid was transported around the country on nursery stock trees. It could also spread through backyard citrus trees.
  • Distribution map:

4159display.jpg

The orange areas are where only the psyllid has been detected. The green areas are where HLB has also been found.

  • Mode of Reproduction: Asian citrus psyllids are asexual, meaning that they don't need to find a mate to reproduce.
  • Diet, behavior, niche, species displacement, trophic level: Nymphs feed only on the new growths of the citrus tree. The adults feed on the leaves and stems.

Asian Longhorned Beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Coleoptera; Family-Cerambycidae; Subfamily-Lamiinae; Tribe-Monochamini; Genus-Anoplophora; Species-A. glabripennis
  • Anatomy: (only if there is significant stuff)
    • Wings: The long antennae are banded in black and white.
    • Legs: Six legs, may have blue feet.
    • Eyes:
    • Mouth:
    • Misc/General: 1-1.5 inches long. Bullet shaped; similar to the Whiespotted Sawyer, but ALB is shiny black with white spots on the body. The long antennae are banded in black and white. In females, the antennae are as long as the body itself; in males, they are almost twice the length of the body.
    • Adaptive anatomy:
  • Life Cycle: Adult beetles emerge during the summer and live into early fall.
    • Egg: Eggs are laid in the bark of trees. They take 10-15 days to hatch into wormlike grubs.
    • Larvae:
    • Pupa: (Nymph can replace Larvae/Pupa)
  • Reproduction: Sexual reproduction.
    • General Reproduction:
    • What makes it so good at reproducing?:
  • Ecology:
    • Behavior: The beetle primarily damages and kills maple trees. The larvae burrow through tissue that carries water throughout the tree, and the tree dies. Unseasonable yellow or drooping leaves are also signs of an ALB infestation. Excessive sawdust buildup near the bottom of the tree is also common. Pencil-sized exit holes show where adult beetles have burrowed out.
    • Niche:
    • Trophic Level:
  • Native habitat:
    • Characteristics of said habitat:
  • Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):
    • Characteristics of new habitat: Known ALB host trees in US include all in the following genera: Ash (Fraxinus) Birch (Betula) Elm (Ulmus) Golden raintree (Koelreuteria), London planetree/sycamore (Platanus) Maple (Acer) Horsechestnut/buckeye (Aesculus) Katsura (Cercidiphyllum) Mimosa (Albizia), Mountain ash (Sorbus), Poplar (Populus), Willow (Salix).
  • Preventative measures: Extensive surveys.
    • Laws and effectiveness: APHIS requires all SWPM imported into the United States from China and Hong Kong to be heat treated, fumigated, or treated with preservatives.
    • Control measures and effectiveness: Because the majority of the beetle’s life is spent deep within the host tree, surface applied insecticides are not an option. Insecticide treatments (imidacloprid) (insecticides injected into trees via small injection capsules then spread systemically through the wood, killing insects infesting that wood. Quarantines and infested trees cut, chipped and burned (New York & Chicago began in 1997) also help.
    • Damage (why it’s a problem):
    • Region/Origin and Year of Introduction: From China and Korean Penninsula. First discovered in Brooklyn, New York, 1996. It was later detected in Chicago Illinois in July, 1998. In October 2002, it was discovered in New Jersey.
    • Current distribution map:
    • Transport/How spread & introduced: *The beetle may have been accidentally introduced through wood packing materials, or wooden crates and pallets. ALB don’t spread quickly on their own, but because beetle larvae live deep inside trees during the majority of the year, people can easily and unknowingly move the pest in firewood, live trees, or fallen timber.

Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Diptera; Family-Culicidae; Genus-Aedes; Species-A. albopictus
    • Note: it was originally placed in the genus Culex, from which it was moved to the genus Aedes. As a part of this genus, it was also placed in the subgenus Stegomyia. This subgenus was recently changed to a genus, meaning that A. albopictus should technically be named Stegomyia albopictus now (however, this is still controversial)).
  • Identification Tips: Distinguished from other mosquitoes because of bands throughout body;
  • Anatomy:
    • Legs: White bands on legs;
    • Eyes: Compound eyes distinctly separated;
    • Mouth: Proboscis is dark colored, the upper surface of the end segment of the palps is covered in silvery scales, and the labium does not feature a light line on its underside;
    • Misc/General: 2-10mm in length; Black/white pattern; Males 20% smaller than females (morphologically similar);
    • Adaptive anatomy: Can breed in almost any water environment;
  • Life Cycle:
    • Egg: Lay their eggs in water-filled natural and artificial containers like cavities in trees and old tires; (not in ditches or marshes); Spend winter in egg stage; Hatch when covered with water in spring/summmer;
    • Larvae: Called wrigglers; Feed on small bits of debris and bacteria in the water;
    • Pupa: Comma-shaped, called "tumblers" because of their tumbling motion in water when disturbed; Adult mosquitoes emerge in as little as 10 to 14 days after the eggs hatch during the summer;
  • Reproduction:
    • General Reproduction: Does not usually fly far from reproductive site; Females need to eat blood to feed eggs;
    • What makes it so good at reproducing?: Can reproduce anywhere with water;
  • Ecology:
    • Diet: Feed during daylight hours; Males: Plant juices; Females: blood;
    • Behavior: Attracted to dark clothing, perspiration, carbon dioxide and certain other odors; Females bite squirrels, dogs, deer and other animals as well as people;
  • Native habitat: Tropical and subtropical areas of southern Asia
  • Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat): Europe, North America, South America, The Caribbean, Africa, and the Middle East
  • Preventative measures:
    • Control measures and effectiveness: "fogging" (space spraying from specially equipped trucks) is ineffective because they are active during the day; People can help stop the spread by doing the following: Removing any water-filled containers like old tires, food containers and buckets from their yard; Keeping mosquitoes from breeding in bird baths, pet water dishes and plastic wading pools by emptying them at least once a week; Roof gutters should be kept clean of fallen leaves and other debris so that water does not collect in them; Neighborhood residents should work together to eliminate breeding sites like abandoned cars, old machinery, drums and other junk in vacant lots; Businesses should cover tires, store them indoors or treat them with an insecticide labeled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for control of mosquito larvae; Report piles of discarded tires or other accumulations of water-holding junk to local health officials;
  • Damage (why it’s a problem): Carries diseases (infected with LaCrosse encephalitis viruses and West Nile virus, which can cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain); Lives close with humans instead of in the wetlands; Persistent biters;
  • Current distribution map:
  • Transport/How spread & introduced: Introduced into the United States in tire casings imported for recapping; 20+ states since 1985; Late 1800s (Hawaii); 1985 (Continental U.S.)
A blood-engorged female Aedes albopictus mosquito feeding on a human host.

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halyomorpha halys)

Also known as Yellow-brown stink bug, East Asian stink bug

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Hemiptera; Family-Pentatomidae; Genus-Halyomorpha; Species-H. halys
  • Identification Tips:
  • Anatomy: (only if there is significant stuff)
    • Wings:
    • Legs:
    • Eyes:
    • Mouth:
    • Misc/General: Adults are approximately 17 mm long and are shades of brown on both the upper and lower body surface. Typical “shield” shape of other stink bugs, almost as wide as is long. They have patches of coppery or bluish-metallic colored punctures (small rounded depressions) on the head and pronotum
  • Adaptive anatomy: More resistant to cold compared to other stink bug species. Scent glands located on the dorsal surface of the abdomen and the underside of the thorax, when squashed will release an odor (it's a stink bug).
  • Life Cycle: Adults will emerge sometime in the spring of the year (late April to mid-May), and mate and deposit eggs from May through August. Around one generation per year (in PA). Warm spring and summer conditions could permit the development of two or three generations. Adults begin to search for overwintering sites starting in September through the first half of October.
    • Eggs: Eggs are typically laid in May by adults that have hatched from overwintering, and those eggs turn into adults around July. The eggs are elliptical (1.6 x 1.3 mm), light green with minute spines forming fine lines. They are attached, side-by-side, to the underside of leaves in masses of 20 to 30 eggs.
    • Larvae: Orange-red and black nymphs. There are five nymphal instars.
    • Pupa: (Nymph can replace Larvae/Pupa):
  • Reproduction:
    • General Reproduction:
    • What makes it so good at reproducing?:
  • Ecology:
    • Diet: H. halys will eat almost anything. It attacks more than 170 different plant species, and prefers to eat many of the same foods as humans, especially beans, garden vegetables, and tree fruit. Fruits attacked include apples, peaches, figs, mulberries, citrus fruits and persimmons.
    • Behavior:
    • Niche:
    • Trophic Level:
    • Habitat:
  • Preventative measures: Fixing cracks and holes where insects can enter buildings is very effective.
  • Laws and effectiveness:
  • Control measures and effectiveness: Mechanical exclusion is the best method to keep stink bugs from entering homes. Tiny parasitic wasps, Trissolcus, is known to attack BMSB eggs. In addition, a naturally occurring fungus, Ophiocordyceps nutans, attacks BMSB in Japan. Program of natural biological control could provide the safest, most effective, and economical approach to tackling BMSB. Insecticides don't last very long.
  • Damage (why it’s a problem): Feeding on tree fruits such as apple results in a characteristic distortion referred to as “cat facing,” that renders the fruit unmarketable as a fresh product. These insects can produce allergic reactions (rhinitis and/or conjunctivitis) in some individuals who are sensitive to the bugs’ odor (an aeroallergen), and have been known to cause dermatitis when squashed against exposed skin.
  • Current distribution map:

Transport/How spread & introduced: BMSB was accidentally imported from Asia to North America in the late 1990s. First detected in the US on September 1998, Allentown, PA. From the original introduction, the pest has now spread in 13 years to 41 states and Canada. It was first discovered in Allentown (East Pennsylvania) in September, 1998. *The BMSB spreads through hitchhiking or transporting into many places.

Cactus Moth (Cactoblastis cactorum)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Lepidoptera; Family-Pyralidae; Tribe-Phycitini; Genus-Cactoblastis; Species-C. cactorum
  • Identification Tips:
  • Anatomy: (only if there is significant stuff)
    • Wings:Wavy transverse lines;
    • Legs:Long;
    • Eyes:
    • Mouth:
    • Misc/General: Gray-brown; faint dark dots; long antennae;
    • Adaptive anatomy:
  • Life Cycle:
    • Egg:70-90 eggs on a pear spine; eat the cactus once hatched;
    • Larvae:Pink/cream colored at first, then turn orange; dark bands;
    • Pupa: (Nymph can replace Larvae/Pupa)
  • Reproduction:
    • General Reproduction:
    • What makes it so good at reproducing?:
  • Ecology:
    • Diet:
    • Behavior:
    • Niche:
    • Trophic Level:
  • Native habitat:
    • Characteristics of said habitat:
  • Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):
    • Characteristics of new habitat:
  • Preventative measures:
    • Laws and effectiveness:
    • Control measures and effectiveness:Quarantine;
    • Damage (why it’s a problem):Destroys cacti;
    • Current distribution map:
    • Transport/How spread & introduced: Imported to Caribbean to control prickly pear cacti; arrived to US naturally or through cargo

Chilli Thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Thysanoptera; Family-Thripidae; Subfamily-Thripinae; Genus-Scirtothrips; Species-S. dorsalis
  • First discovered in Hawaii in 1987; first established population discovered in Florida in 2005
  • Pale yellow, almost white colored body, slightly less than 1mm in size. Mature adults have wings.
  • The two larval stages are complete in 8-10 days. Pupae are generally found on leaves.
  • Damage- the thrips create damaging scars, distorted leaves, and discolored buds and flowers. Causes defoliation and crop loss.
  • The thrips feed on over 100 plants including chili peppers, strawberries, tea, and tomatoes.
  • Minute pirate bugs can be effective in controlling thrips. Insecticides sometimes work.

Citrus Longhorned Beetle (Anoplophora chinensis)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Coleoptera; Family-Cerambycidae; Subfamily-Lamiinae; Tribe-Monochamini; Genus-Anoplophora; Species-A. chinensis
  • Identification Tips:
  • Anatomy: (only if there is significant stuff)
    • Wings:
    • Legs:
    • Eyes:
    • Mouth:
    • Misc/General:
    • Adaptive anatomy:
  • Life Cycle:
    • Egg:
    • Larvae:
    • Pupa: (Nymph can replace Larvae/Pupa)
  • Reproduction:
    • General Reproduction:
    • What makes it so good at reproducing?:
  • Ecology:
    • Behavior:
    • Niche:
    • Trophic Level:
  • Native habitat:
    • Characteristics of said habitat:
  • Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):
    • Characteristics of new habitat:
  • Preventative measures:
    • Laws and effectiveness:
    • Control measures and effectiveness:
    • Damage (why it’s a problem):
    • Current distribution map:
    • Transport/How spread & introduced:
  • The Citrus Longhorned Beetle was first detected in a nursery in Washington in 2001. It was transported to the US by global trade and movement of plants.
  • The CLB is approximately 21 - 37mm long with shiny black elytra marked with 10 to 12 white round spots. Males are smaller than females. The elytra of a male CLB is narrow compared to the female. The egg is creamy white but turns yellowish when ready to hatch.
  • 200 eggs are laid. They are laid under bark of the base of the tree.
  • Most activity occurs during the day.
  • They damage citrus trees, pecans, apples, cedar, oaks, and sycamore.
  • Red ants, burning trees that contain larvae, wire netting and insecticides help control the CLB.

Common Pine Shoot Beetle (Tomicus piniperda)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Coleoptera; Family-Curculionidae; Subfamily-Scolytinae; Tribe-Hylesinini; Genus-Tomiscus; Species-T. piniperda
  • Identification Tips:
  • Anatomy: (only if there is significant stuff)
    • Wings:
    • Legs:
    • Eyes:
    • Mouth:
    • Misc/General:
    • Adaptive anatomy:
  • Life Cycle:
    • Egg:
    • Larvae:
    • Pupa: (Nymph can replace Larvae/Pupa)
  • Reproduction:
    • General Reproduction:
    • What makes it so good at reproducing?:
  • Ecology:
    • Behavior:
    • Niche:
    • Trophic Level:
  • Native habitat:
    • Characteristics of said habitat:
  • Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):
    • Characteristics of new habitat:
  • Preventative measures:
    • Laws and effectiveness:
    • Control measures and effectiveness:
    • Damage (why it’s a problem):
    • Current distribution map:
    • Transport/How spread & introduced:
  • First discovered in Ohio in 1998 it was accidentally discovered from wood packaging material
  • Accidentally discovered from wood packaging material
  • Capable of killing or Damaging pine trees by feeding young shoots
  • Adult CPSB are brown to shiny black, and get darker as they mature. They are 3-5 mm and are a cylindrical shape
  • Females construct individual monoramous, vertical egg galleries within the inner bark that are 10 to 25cm long and about 2 mm wide. Females lay eggs singly in niches on both sides of the egg gallery. This species periodically sweeps its egg galleries clean of frass. Larvae construct galleries, 4 to 9 cm long, that are perpendicular to the egg gallery.
  • There are no chemical ways to kill the pest but a predatory beetle (Thanasimus formicarius) eats several pine shoot beetles every day.

Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Coleoptera; Family-Buprestidae; Genus-Agrilus; Species-A. planipennis
  • Identification Tips: Look for distinctive 1/8 inch to 1/6 inch (3 mm to 4 mm) D-shaped exit holes. Larvae wind back and forth while feeding, resulting in S-shaped galleries.
  • Anatomy: (only if there is significant stuff)
    • Wings: Coppery red or purple abdomen under the wings
    • Legs:
    • Eyes:
    • Mouth:
    • Misc/General: Emerald ash borer adults are very small, metallic green beetles. About the size of a cooked grain of rice: only 3/8 - 1/2 inch long and 1/16 inch wide.
    • Adaptive anatomy:
  • Life Cycle: Generally have a one-year life cycle, with peak activity between mid-June and early-July. Adult EAB live for three to six weeks.
    • Egg: Eggs are laid from mid-June and well into August. EAB eggs hatch in about two weeks, depending on temperature. 1mm long, creamy white turning amber.
    • Larvae: Live under bark. 26-32 mm long, creamy white, dorso-ventrally flattened.
    • Pupa: (Nymph can replace Larvae/Pupa) Pupation generally takes place the following spring (late-April to May), with adults staying in the pupal chambers for 1 to 2 weeks, at which time they emerge. 10-14 mm long, creamy white, antennae stretch to elytra base.
  • Reproduction: Once they find a mate, the female will lay 60 - 90 eggs, deposited individually on ash trees, between layers of outer bark and in cracks and crevices of the trunk and major branches.
    • General Reproduction:
    • What makes it so good at reproducing?:
  • Ecology:
    • Behavior: The adult beetles nibble on ash foliage but cause little damage. The larvae (the immature stage) feed on the inner bark of ash trees, disrupting the tree's ability to transport water and nutrients.
    • Niche:
    • Trophic Level:
  • Native habitat:
    • Characteristics of said habitat: Require only their host plant, ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) Live in the canopy of the ash tree.
  • Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):
    • Characteristics of new habitat:
  • Preventative measures: Do not move firewood. There are various treatments, but no cure.
    • Laws and effectiveness:
      Distribution map of EAB
    • Control measures and effectiveness: Insecticides can effectively and consistently protect ash trees. Emamectin benzoate consistently provides at least two years of EAB control. Basal trunk sprays with dinotefuran applied annually effectively protected ash trees up to 22”. Quarantines also help.
    • Damage (why it’s a problem): Millions of ash trees have died or are dying from emerald ash borer attack in the United States since the beetle's introduction. More than 7.5 billion ash trees remain at risk. Can kill tree in 3-4 years, larvae feed under bark of trees, cutting off the flow of water and nutrients.
    • Current distribution map: Originally from Asia.
    • Transport/How spread & introduced: First seen in southwest Michigan in the summer of 2002 near Detroit, probably arrived in the United States on solid wood packing material carried in cargo ships or airplanes originating in its native Asia.

European Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Lepidoptera; Family-Erebidae; Genus-Lymantria; Species-L. dispar
  • Identification Tips: Larvae/caterpillars have five pairs of blue tubercles (bumps) in front, and six pairs of red tubercles in back.
  • Anatomy: (only if there is significant stuff)
    • Wings: Females have yellowish-white wings with dark wavy lines and dots.
    • Legs:
    • Eyes:
    • Mouth:
    • Misc/General:
      • Males: Grayish-brown; feathery antennae
      • Females: Larger; threaded antennae; whitish with black marks; cannot fly, lighter in color than males.
    • Adaptive anatomy:
  • Life Cycle: Life cycle spans approximately one year. Eggs overwinter and hatch in the Spring. Larvae longest stage, lasts for 10 months. When adult moths come out of their cocoons (about two weeks), they mate.
    • Egg: Laid on branches, tires, etc.; cream colored but turn lighter through sun exposure; about 0.5 inches long with 100 eggs. Female will cover her eggs with hairs from her body.
    • Larvae: Can be blown around by wind; eat leaves up to 1 square foot a day
    • Pupa: Are eaten by mice, shrews, ground beetles, providing some population control; adults emerge after 2 weeks, live for 1 week, and do not eat. Brown cocoons, stuck to the bark of trees.
  • Reproduction:
    • General Reproduction:
    • What makes it so good at reproducing?:
  • Ecology:
    • Diet: Older larvae will sometimes eat several species of hardwood that the younger larvae will avoid. However, when food is scarce, the larvae will feed on almost any vegetation. Over three hundred species of trees and shrubs are host to the gypsy moth. Gypsy moth larvae prefer oak trees, but may feed on many species of trees and shrubs, both hardwood and conifer.
    • Behavior:
    • Niche:
    • Trophic Level:
  • Native habitat: Forests or open forests. Trees and shrubs they live on take up at least 20% of the space. Temperate climates. They are found near humans in urban and suburban areas. Hosts include conifers, willows, evergreens, birch, etc.
    • Characteristics of said habitat:
  • Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):
    • Characteristics of new habitat:
  • Preventative measures:
    • Laws and effectiveness:
    • Control measures and effectiveness:
      • Entomophaga maimaiga is a fungus that works, but it works best with wet weather. A nucleopolyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) is effective because it only kills gypsy moth caterpillars. The Calosoma sycophanta, a metallic green ground beetle, was introduced to New England to help control in 1906. <- need to double check for sources
    • Damage (why it’s a problem): Defoliates trees; makes trees more susceptible to Armillariella mellea (shoestring fungus) and Agrlius bilineatus (two lined chestnut borer); frass can ruin recreation.
    • Current distribution map:
    • Transport/How spread & introduced: From Europe to Medford, Massachusetts in 1869 by Leopold Trouvelot- he wanted to breed them for silk production, but a few escaped; began defoliating New England bye 1900s; first discovered in PA in 1932. Natural spread over short distances occurs as newly hatched larvae spin short lengths of silken thread which allow them to be blown by the wind. Over the last 10 to 15 years, gypsy moths have moved long distances on outdoor household articles such as cars and recreational vehicles, firewood, household goods, and other personal possessions.

European Spruce Bark Beetle (Ips typographus)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Coleoptera; Superfamily-Curculionoidea; Family-Curculionidae; Subfamily-Scolytinae; Genus-Ips; Species-I. typographus
  • Identification Tips:
  • Anatomy: (only if there is significant stuff)
    • Wings:
    • Legs:
    • Eyes:
    • Mouth:
    • Misc/General:
    • Adaptive anatomy:
  • Life Cycle:
    • Egg:
    • Larvae:
    • Pupa: (Nymph can replace Larvae/Pupa)
  • Reproduction:
    • General Reproduction:
    • What makes it so good at reproducing?:
  • Ecology:
    • Behavior:
    • Niche:
    • Trophic Level:
  • Native habitat:
    • Characteristics of said habitat:
  • Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):
    • Characteristics of new habitat:
  • Preventative measures:
    • Laws and effectiveness:
    • Control measures and effectiveness:
    • Damage (why it’s a problem):
    • Current distribution map:
    • Transport/How spread & introduced:
  • Adults 4.2 to 5.5 mm long, cylindrical and reddish or dark brown to completely black. The front of the head and the sides of the body are covered with long yellowish hairs. Four spines on each side of the elytral declivity, with the third spine being the largest. However, males have a larger head on the third spine than females and have fewer hairs on the pronotum.
  • It has been found on packing crates and unprocessed wood items. It is not currently in the US.
  • The male bores a hole into the bark of a tree, then mates with a few females. After hatching, larvae bore through the phloem (which transports food from the leaves), then turn into adults, leaving round exit holes on the bark. Males produce pheromones that attract both sexes to the host tree.
  • The beetle kills extreme amounts of trees, by boring through the phloem.
  • Mass trapping with pheromone bait and the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana (a natural pathogen of the spruce bark beetle) can be effective.

Formosan Subterranean Termite (Coptotermes formosanus)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Blattodea; Infraorder-Isoptera; Family-Rhinotermitidae; Genus-Coptotermes; Species-C. formosanus
  • There are three castes: reproductive, soldiers, and workers. The winged reproductives emerge from the colony on warm, humid evenings to mate and start new colonies. They have pale yellowish-brown bodies about ⅜ of an inch long, and have two pairs of densely haired wings (tiny hairs). Soldiers are about ¼” long and have orange-brown, oval shaped heads. They are equipped with black, sickle-shaped jaws (mandibles) that are used to defend the colony from other ants and enemies. Workers have creamy yellowish bodies and are about ¼” long. They have hardened mouthpieces to chew through wood and cellulose products.
  • It was introduced into Hawaii from soil in potted plants and or in wood as ship's’ cargo. It arrived to the continental US on military ships returning from World War II carrying cargo in/on wooden crates and pallets from the Pacific theatre.
  • They spread through swarmers and can spread their range from heated buildings. The cold may limit their ability to spread.
  • Each newly hatched termite can turn into any caste.
  • It attacks wood and living trees, and will chew through thin material such as thin sheets of soft metal, electric lines, plastics, mortar, plaster, rubber insulation, stucco, neoprene, and seals on water lines.
  • Control: removing scrap lumber, firewood, etc. Pesticides may sometimes work.

Giant African Snail (Lissachatina fulica)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Mollusca; Class-Gastropoda; Superfamily-Achatinoidea; Family-Achatinidae; Genus-Lissachatina; Species-L. fulica
  • Light to dark brown shells with vertical stripes of a different shade of brown on them. The average adult shell has a conical shape and is about 4 inches in length, though some snails with 7 inch long shells have been found. They normally range from 3-8 inches, and live about 5-7 years. They eat more than 500 different species of plants, so are considered a very important pest in the US.
  • Native to East Africa, and can spread through pet trade. The first occurrence of these snails outside of Africa was Bengal, India in 1847. Giant African Snails were first spotted in the US in the late 1940’s around San Pedro, California. Many of these snails were affixed to cargo imported to the US. Over 50 interceptions occurred within a ten year span (from 1948-1958) in the California ports.In 1958, a young boy stashed Giant African Snails into his suitcase from his travels in Hawaii returning to California and driving to Arizona. Once the snails were discovered in his belongings, they family released them to the outdoors. Another very similar incident occurred in 1966, where another young boy visiting Hawaii decided to take a few Giant African Snails home to Miami, Florida to keep as pets and were released into the family’s garden. The Florida State eradication process took 10 years costing over one million dollars.These snails continue to enter the US through illegal trade or in shipping containers and in plant shipments from the Hawaiian Islands, Guam and other Pacific Islands. Inspectors fairly easily identify these snails, intercept them and eradicate them. In the early 2000’s the introduction of Giant African Snails have also occurred in Wisconsin, Michigan and Ohio due to pet store trade and educational institutions’ requests.
  • The GAS is a hermaphrodite, which means that is has the organs of a male and female. 5-6 clutches of 200 eggs are laid per year.
  • Damage: they can destroy a variety of plants, and if not cooked through before eating, cause meningitis.
  • Control: molluscicides (such as metaldehyde) are effective but negatively affect the soil. Iron phosphate does not affect the soil as much.
  • These snails have small spikes on the tongue (the radula) that allows it to grab food easily. The mucus they release lets them move over rough surfaces.

Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Homoptera; Family-Cicadellidae; Genus-Homalodisca; Species-H. vitripennis

Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae)

    • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Hemiptera; Superfamily-Phylloxeroidea; Family-Adelgidae; Genus-Adelges;

Species-A. tsugae

  • Identification Tips: Most obvious sign of invasion is cottony ovisacs each containing 300 eggs. Coats itself in a white, waxy “wool” which acts as a protective coating for the insect. It is oval shaped and brownish-reddish in color.
  • Anatomy: (only if there is significant stuff)
    • Wings:
    • Legs:
    • Eyes:
    • Mouth:
    • Misc/General: Oval, blackish-gray, and about 1mm in length. Newly hatched nymphs (crawlers) are approximately the same size, reddish-brown, and produce white/waxy tufts that cover their bodies throughout their life. The white-cottony masses are 3mm or more in diameter.
    • Adaptive anatomy:
  • Life Cycle: 6 stages of development: the egg, four nymphal instars, and the adult. Enters a period of dormancy during the hot summer months. Begin to feed once cooler temperatures prevail (October), continue throughout winter months
    • Egg:
    • Larvae: Larvae emerge in spring, can spread on their own or with assistance
    • Pupa: (Nymph can replace Larvae/Pupa) The first instar nymphs (crawlers) feed at the bases of hemlock needles. During later instars, the adelgid is immobile and settles on a single tree.
  • Reproduction: Parthenogenetic, which means that all individuals are female with asexual reproduction. There are roughly two generations per year in North America, in Asia 3rd generation called sexupera, requires a spruce that’s not in NA.
    • General Reproduction:
    • What makes it so good at reproducing?: The hemlock wooly adelgid has an impressive reproductive potential: consider that one female in the winter generation produces an average of 200 eggs which in turn mature and each female of this adult spring generation produces on average another 200 eggs each. That’s 40,000 eggs in one year, thus, HWA populations can grow rapidly in a relatively short period of time.
  • Ecology:
    • Diet:
    • Behavior: Feed on stored nutrients from young twigs of hemlock (sucks phloem sap)

causes needles to dessicate and drop, infested hemlock grey-green, death typically occurs 4-10 years after infestations, trees that do survive usually weaker, can die from different causes

    • Niche:
    • Trophic Level:
  • Native habitat:
    • Characteristics of said habitat:
  • Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):
    • Characteristics of new habitat:
  • Preventative measures:
    • Laws and effectiveness:
    • Control measures and effectiveness: Insecticidal soaps and horticultural oils kill only the insects on the tree at the time and require reapplication every 6 months. Imidacloprid works through soil drenching or injection into the trunk. Pseudoscymnus tsugae (ladybeetles) eats the eggs of the HWA. Many other ladybeetles are predators too. Does not seem able to survive prolonged or bitter cold.
    • Damage (why it’s a problem): The hemlock wooly adelgid feeds deep within plant tissues by inserting its long sucking mouthparts (stylets) into the underside of the base of hemlock tree needles. Hemlock provides extensive cover/shade so is prevalent in watersheds/riparian zones--the killing of hemlocks has changed the tree balance.
    • Current distribution map:
    • Transport/How spread & introduced: The HWA is believed to have been accidentally introduced to Western America from Asia. It was first discovered in Oregon in 1924, but it is disputed whether this was an introduced or native population. In the eastern US, the HWA was first observed in Richmond, Virginia around 1950. It can spread through the transport of infested hemlock trees, and was aided by birds, deer, humans, and the wind. Advance rate of approximately 15 miles per year.

Light Brown Apple Moth (Epiphyas postvittana)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Lepidoptera; Family-Tortricidae; Genus-Epiphyas; Species-E. postvittana
  • Forewing length is between 6 - 13 mm (0.2- 0.5 in.). Soft, scaled wings that cover the body at rest. The wing color of the LBAM Wing color varies from light brown to mottled brown. Dark tips may occur on wings. Males are usually smaller than females. Native to Australia. The LBAM has a characteristic “bell” shape at rest.
  • The LBAM was first discovered in California, 2007, though reports say that it was present in Hawaii in the late 1800’s. It is commonly found on international strawberry shipments.
  • Eggs (in clusters of 3-150) are laid 6 to 10 days after moth emergence on the upper surface of leaves or fruit. They are 0.7x1 mm, and appear flat with a pebbled surface. They overlap each other within the raft to form a smooth mass. Eggs are white to pale green, changing to a paler yellow green as they develop, and take from 5 to more than 30 days to hatch, depending on the temperature. As caterpillars develop, their darkening head capsule is visible through the egg wall, giving egg clusters a blotchy/ speckled look just prior to hatching.
  • The LBAM caterpillars feed on over 500 different plant varieties, and feed on the surface of the fruit. Once they break the surface, there are deep feeding scars.
  • A 20:1 mixture of (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate: (E,E)-(9, 11)-tetradecadienyl acetate in a 3 mg dose per rubber septum mimics the sex pheromone produced by females, and mainly males are attracted to this. Parasitic wasps like Trichogramma feed on the eggs of the LBAM.

Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Ceratitis capitata)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Diptera; Family-Tephritidae; Genus-Ceratitis; Species-C. capitata
  • Identification Tips:
  • Anatomy:
    • Wings: Clear wings with light brown bands and gray flecks; Broad and hyaline with black, brown, and brownish yellow markings; Wide brownish yellow band across the middle of the wing. The apex of the wing's anal cell is elongate. There are dark streaks and spots in middle of wing cells in and anterior to anal cell.
    • Legs:
    • Eyes: Reddish purple (fluoresce green, turning blackish within 24 hours after death); Ocellar bristles are present; Male has a pair of bristles with enlarged spatulate tips next to the inner margins of the eyes;
    • Mouth:
    • Misc/General: Blackish thorax with some gray areas, a tan abdomen with dark stripes; 3.5 to 5 mm in length; Thorax is creamy white to yellow with a characteristic pattern of black blotches; Abdomen is oval with fine black bristles scattered on dorsal surface and two narrow transverse light bands on basal half;
    • Adaptive anatomy:
  • Life Cycle: 21 days to go from larva to adult under optimal conditions; Under 50 degrees Fahrenheit, the fruit fly can take as long as 100 days to turn into an adult.
    • Egg: Adults lay eggs under the skins of fruit, particularly where the skin is already broken; Hatch within 3 days; Very slender, curved, 1 mm long, smooth and shiny white; Micropylar region is distinctly tubercular;
    • Larvae: Develop inside the fruit; Feed on the pulp of host fruits, sometimes tunneling through it and eventually reducing the whole to a juicy, inedible mass; White with a typical fruit fly larval shape (cylindrical maggot-shape, elongate, anterior end narrowed and somewhat recurved ventrally); Anterior mouth hooks, and flattened caudal end; Last instar is usually 7 to 9 mm in length, with eight ventral fusiform areas;
    • Pupa: Cylindrical, 4 to 4.3 mm long, dark reddish brown, and resembles a swollen grain of wheat;
  • Reproduction:
    • General Reproduction:
    • What makes it so good at reproducing?: Adults have a limited ability to disperse, but the global fruit trade can transport infected fruit over thousands of miles; Can tolerate very cold temperatures; Wide range of hosts; Develop rapidly;
  • Ecology:
    • Diet:
    • Behavior:
    • Niche:
    • Trophic Level:
  • Native habitat: sub-Saharan Africa
    • Characteristics of said habitat:
  • Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat): Hawaii; California, Florida, and Texas have had infestations but successfully prevented the fruit fly from being established;
    • Characteristics of new habitat:
  • Preventative measures:
    • Laws and effectiveness: Some countries maintain quarantines against the medfly, which could jeopardize some fresh fruit markets if it should become established in Florida;
    • Control measures and effectiveness: Harvesting fruits before complete maturity is practiced in Mediterranean areas generally infested;
    • Damage (why it’s a problem): One of the world's most destructive pests; Pest of citrus and fruits: peach, pear, apple; Create need for a costly sorting processes for both fresh and processed fruit and vegetables;
    • Current distribution map:
    • Transport/How spread & introduced: Spread to Hawaii in 1910; Often accidentally introduced by tourists or importers that bring in contaminated fruit.
A Mediterranean fruit fly.

Mexican Fruit Fly (Anastrepha ludens)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Diptera; Family-Tephritidae; Genus-Anastrepha; Species-A. ludens
  • Identification Tips:
  • Anatomy: (only if there is significant stuff)
    • Wings: Forewing is 6.6 - 9.0 mm (0.26 - 0.35 in.) in length;
    • Legs:
    • Eyes:
    • Mouth:
    • Misc/General: About 7 - 10 mm (0.28 - 0.39 in.) in length; Yellow-brown body and wings, and green eyes;
    • Adaptive anatomy:
  • Life Cycle: Adults survive for many months, occasionally almost a full year; Males are able to survive much longer than females, even as much as 16 months;
    • Egg:
    • Larvae: Maggots are legless and yellow-white;
    • Pupa: (Nymph can replace Larvae/Pupa)
  • Reproduction: Females have long, tubular ovipositor sheaths relative to body size. Ovipositor sheath is 3.35 - 4.7 mm (0.13 - 0.19 in.) in length;
    • General Reproduction: The female oviposits in citrus and other fruit when the fruit begins to show color. Eggs are laid in groups of about ten and hatch in 6 to 12 days. The newly hatched larvae eat and burrow into the pulp of the fruit, taking on the color of their food so that when small they are hidden. When fully grown, the larvae emerge through conspicuous exit holes, usually after the fruit has fallen to the ground, and pupate in the soil. Larval development is approximately three to four weeks, depending upon temperature conditions. The development is faster where there are higher temperatures. Usually, the shorter the period for fruit maturation the faster the larva grows.
    • What makes it so good at reproducing?:
  • Ecology:
    • Behavior:
    • Niche:
    • Trophic Level:
  • Native habitat:
    • Characteristics of said habitat:
  • Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat): Spread through citrus orchards in Mexico up into Texas, Arizona, and California; US currently free of MFF
    • Characteristics of new habitat:
  • Preventative measures:
    • Laws and effectiveness:
    • Control measures and effectiveness: Malathion (an insecticide) is used, and releasing flies sterilized by irradiation can also be very effective
    • Damage (why it’s a problem): Damages many commercial citrus crops such as mangos, tangerines, grapefruits, and oranges
    • Current distribution map:
    • Transport/How spread & introduced:

Pink Bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella)

Pinkbollworm.jpg

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Lepidoptera; Family-Gelechiidae; Genus-Pectinophora; Species-P. gossypiella

Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Hemiptera; Superfamily-Coccoidea; Family-Pseudococcidae; Genus-Maconellicoccus; Species-M. hirsutus

Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Hymenoptera; Family-Formicidae; Subfamily-Myrmicinae; Tribe-Solenopsidini; Genus-Solenopsis; Species-S. invicta
  • Identification Tips:
  • Anatomy: (only if there is significant stuff)
    • Wings:
    • Legs:
    • Eyes:
    • Mouth:
    • Misc/General:
    • Adaptive anatomy:
  • Life Cycle:
    • Egg:
    • Larvae:
    • Pupa: (Nymph can replace Larvae/Pupa)
  • Reproduction:
    • General Reproduction:
    • What makes it so good at reproducing?:
  • Ecology:
    • Diet:
    • Behavior:
    • Niche:
    • Trophic Level:
  • Native habitat:
    • Characteristics of said habitat:
  • Where it’s a problem (“new” habitat):
    • Characteristics of new habitat:
  • Preventative measures:
    • Laws and effectiveness:
    • Control measures and effectiveness:
    • Damage (why it’s a problem):
    • Current distribution map:
    • Transport/How spread & introduced:

Russian Wheat Aphid (Diuraphis noxia)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Hemiptera; Suborder-Sternorrhyncha; Superfamily-Aphidoidea; Family-Aphididae; Genus-Diuraphis; Species-D. noxia

Silverleaf Whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Arthropoda; Class-Insecta; Order-Hemiptera; Suborder-Sternorrhyncha; Family-Aleyrodidae; Genus-Bemisia; Species-B. argentifolii

Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines)

  • Taxonomy: Kingdom-Animalia; Phylum-Nematoda; Class-Chromadorea; Order-Tylenchida; Family-Heteroderidae; Subfamily-Heteroderinae; Genus-Heterodera; Species-H. glycines
  • The SCN was first discovered in North Carolina in 1954.
  • It is unknown how it got to the US but may have arrived in imported plant material or soil.
  • The first-stage juvenile develops within the egg and molts to form a second stage juvenile . The second stage juvenile hatches from the egg, moves through soil pores in the film of water surrounding soil particles, is attracted to actively growing roots, and infects by penetrating the host plant root, usually near the root tip.
  • The adult female is lemon-shaped. It lays around 200 - 400 eggs.
  • The SCN life cycle has three major stages: egg, juvenile, and adult.
  • Damage - Soybean cyst nematode infection causes damage to plants not only physically by penetrating and moving through the roots, but also physiologically by altering the metabolism of the root cells surrounding the nematode. Damage mainly soybean plants. The SCN damages and limits nutrients from the plant.
  • Control - Once present in the soil, SCN can never be eliminated. However, it can be managed, minimizing the reproduction rate.
  • Common sense sanitation practices can be very effective in delaying the spread of SCN to uninfested land. If only certain fields on a farm are infested with SCN, plowing, planting, and cultivating of these fields should be done after uninfested fields have been worked. After working in infested fields, equipment should be thoroughly cleaned with high pressure water or steam.