Anatomy/Muscle List

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This is a list of muscles tested on in the Muscular System portion of Anatomy and Physiology. See the official 2016 list here: [1].

Muscles of the Head and Neck

Muscles of the Head and Neck
Muscle Name Origin Insertion Function Picture
Frontalis Occipital : highest nuchal line and mastoid process. Frontal: superior fibers of upper facial muscles Galeal aponeurosis (skin above the eyebrows) Wrinkles forehead and fixes galeal aponeurosis
Frontalis
Orbicularis oris Near midline on anterior surface of maxilla and mandible and modiolus at angle of mouth Mucous membrane of margin of lips and raphe with buccinator at modiolus; skin around lips Narrows orifice of mouth, purses lips and puckers lip edges
Orbicularis oris
Orbicularis oculi Medial orbital margin and lacrimal sac (orbital, palpebral and lacrimal parts) Lateral palpebral raphe Closes eyelids, aids passage and drainage of tears
Orbicularis oculi
Occipitofrontalis 2 occipital bellies and 2 frontal bellies; occipital bone Galea aponeurotica Raises eyebrows, wrinkles forehead
Occipitofrontalis
Zygomaticus major Anterior surface of zygomatic bone Modiolus at angle of mouth Elevates and draws angle of mouth laterally
Zygomaticus major
Masseter Anterior two thirds of zygomatic arch and zygomatic process of maxilla Lateral surface of angle and lower ramus of mandible Elevates mandible (enables forced closure of mouth)
Masseter
Sternocleidomastoid Anterior and superior manubrium and superior medial third of clavicle Lateral aspect of mastoid process and anterior half of superior nuchal line Flexes and laterally rotates cervical spine. Protracts head when acting together. Extends neck when neck already partially extended
Sternocleidomastoid
Trapezius Medial third superior nuchal line, ligament nuchae, spinous processes and supraspinous ligaments to T12 Upper fibers to lateral third of posterior border of clavicle; lower to medial acromion and superior lip of spine of scapula to deltoid tubercle Laterally rotates, elevates and retracts scapula. If scapula is fixed, extends and laterally flexes neck
Trapezius
Buccinator External alveolar margins of maxilla and mandible by molar teeth, to maxillary tubercle and pterygoid hamulus and posterior mylohyoid line respectively, then via pterygomandibular raphe between bones Decussates at modiolus of mouth and interdigitates with opposite side Aids mastication, tenses cheeks in blowing and whistling, aids closure of mouth
Buccinator

Muscles That Move the Upper Extremities

Muscles That Move the Upper Extremities
Muscle Name Origin Insertion Function Picture
Pectoralis major Clavicular head Clavicular head-medial half clavicle. Sternocostal head-lateral manubrium and sternum, six upper costal cartilages and external oblique aponeurosis Lateral lip of bicipital groove of humerus and anterior lip of deltoid tuberosity Clavicular head:flexes and adducts arm. Sternal head: adducts and medially rotates arm. Accessory for inspiration
Pectoralis major
Latissimus dorsi Spine T7, spinous processes and supraspinous ligaments of all lower thoracic, lumbar and sacral vertebrae, lumbar fascia, posterior third iliac crest, last four ribs (interdigitating with external oblique abdominis) and inferior angle of scapula Floor of bicipital groove of humerus after spiraling around teres major Extends, adducts and medially rotates arm. Costal attachment helps with deep inspiration and forced expiration
Latissimus dorsi
Deltoid Lateral third of clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula to deltoid tubercle Middle of lateral surface of humerus (deltoid tuberosity) Abducts arm, anterior fibers flex and medial rotate, posterior fibers extend and lateral rotate
Deltoid
Teres major Oval area (lower third) of lateral side of inferior angle of scapula below teres minor Medial lip of bicipital groove of humerus Medially rotates and adducts arm. Stabilizes shoulder joint
Teres major
Biceps brachii Long head:supraglenoid tubercle of scapula. Short head: coracoid process of scapula with coracobrachialis posterior border of bicipital tuberosity of radius (over bursa) and bicipital aponeurosis to deep fascia and subcutaneous ulna flexes elbow and supinates forearm
Biceps brachii
Triceps brachii Long head: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula. lateral head: upper half posterior humerus (linear origin). medial head: lies deep on lower half posterior humerus inferomedial to spiral groove and both intermuscular septa Posterior part of upper surface of olecranon process of ulna and posterior capsule Extends elbow. Long head stabilizes shoulder joint. medial head retracts capsule of elbow joint on extension
Triceps brachii
Brachialis Anterior lower half of humerus and medial and lateral intermuscular septa Coronoid process and tuberosity of ulna Flexes elbow
Brachialis
Brachioradialis Upper two thirds of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus and lateral intermuscular septum Base of styloid process of radius Flexes arm at elbow and brings forearm into midprone position
Brachioradialis
Palmaris longus Common flexor origin of medial epicondyle of humerus Flexor retinaculum and palmar aponeurosis Flexes wrist and tenses palmar aponeurosis
Palmaris longus
Flexor carpi radialis Common flexor origin of medial epicondyle of humerus Bases of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals via groove in trapezium and slip to scaphoid Flexes and abducts wrist
Flexor carpi radialis
Flexor digitorum superficialis Humeral head: common flexor origin of medial epicondyle humerus, medial ligament of elbow. Ulnar head: medial border of coronoid process and fibrous arch. Radial head: whole length of anterior oblique line Tendons split to insert onto sides of middle phalanges of medial four fingers Flexes proximal interphalangeal joints and secondarily metacarpophalangeal joints and wrist
Flexor digitorum superficialis
Extensor carpi radialis brevis Common extensor origin on anterior aspect of lateral epicondyle of humerus Posterior base of 3rd metacarpal Extends and abducts hand at wrist
Extensor carpi radialis brevis
Extensor carpi radialis longus Lower third of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus and lateral intermuscular septum Posterior base of 2nd metacarpal Extends and abducts hand at wrist
Extensor carpi radialis longus
Extensor digitorum Common extensor origin on anterior aspect of lateral epicondyle of humerus External expansion to middle and distal phalanges by four tendons. Tendons 3 and 4 usually fuse and little finger just receives a slip Extends all joints of fingers
Extensor digitorum
Extensor digiti minimi Common extensor origin on anterior aspect of lateral epicondyle of humerus Extensor expansion of little finger-usually two tendons which are joined by a slip from extensor digitorum at metacarpophalangeal joint Extends all joints of little finger
Extensor digiti minimi
Extensor carpi ulnaris Common extensor origin on anterior aspect of lateral epicondyle of humerus Base of 5th metacarpal via groove by ulnar styloid Extends and adducts hand at wrist
Extensor carpi ulnaris

Extra Images

Extensor Digiti Minimi.jpg
Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus.jpg
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis.jpg


Muscles of the Trunk

Muscles of the Trunk
Muscle Name Origin Insertion Function Picture
External Intercostals Inferior border of ribs as far back as posterior angles Superior border of ribs below, passing obliquely downwards and backwards Fix intercostal spaces during respiration. Aids forced inspiration by elevating ribs
External Intercostals
Internal Intercostals Inferior border of ribs as far back as posterior angles Superior border of ribs below , passing obliquely downwards and backwards Fix intercostal spaces during respiration. Aids forced inspiration by elevating ribs
Internal Intercostals
Innermost Intercostals (not techically on the list, but good to know anyway) Internal aspect of ribs above and below Internal aspect of ribs above and below Fix intercostal spaces during respiration
Innermost Intercostals
Transverse abdominis Costal margin, lumbar fascia, anterior two thirds of iliac crest and lateral half of inguinal ligament Aponeurosis of posterior and anterior rectus sheath and conjoint tendon to pubic crest and pectineal line Supports abdominal wall, aids forced expiration and raising intra-abdominal pressure. Conjoint tendon supports posterior wall of inguinal canal
Transverse abdominis
Infraspinatus Medial three quarters of infraspinous fossa of scapula and fibrous intermuscular septa Middle facet of greater tuberosity of humerus and capsule of shoulder joint Laterally rotates arm and stabilizes shoulder joint
Infraspinatus
Rectus abdominis Pubic crest and pubic symphysis 5, 6, 7 costal cartilages, medial inferiorcostal margin and posterior aspect of xiphoid Flexes trunk, aids forced expiration and raise intra-abdominal pressure
Rectus abdominis
Serratus anterior Upper eight ribs and anterior intercostal membranes from midclavicular line. Lower four interdigitating with external oblique Inner medial border scapula. 1 and 2: upper angle; 3 and 4: length of costal surface ; 5-8: inferior angle Laterally rotates and protracts scapula
Serratus anterior
Diaphragm Vertebral:crura from bodies of L1, 2 (left), L1-3 (right). Costal: medial and lateral arcuate ligs, inner aspect of lower six ribs. Sternal: two slips from posterior aspect of xiphoid Central tendon Inspiration and assists in raising intra-abdominal pressure
Diaphragm and lungs above

Muscles That Move the Lower Extremities

Muscles in the leg
Muscles That Move the Lower Extremities
Muscle Name Origin Insertion Function Picture
Iliopsoas(made up of 3 muscles: see below)
Iliacus Iliac fossa within abdomen Lowermost surface of lesser trochanter of femur Flexes medially rotates hip
Iliacus
Psoas major Transverse processes of L1-5, bodies of T12-L5 and intervertebral discs below bodies of T12-L4 Middle surface of lesser trochanter of femur Flexes and laterally rotates hip
Psoas_Major
Psoas minor Bodies of T12 and L1 and intervening intervertebral disc Fascia over psoas major and iliacus Weak flexor of trunk)
Psoas_Minor
Sartorius Immediately below anterior superior iliac spine Upper medial surface of shaft of tibia Flexes, abducts, laterally rotates thigh at hip. Flexes, medially rotates leg at knee
Sartorius
Gluteus maximus Outer surface of ilium behind posterior gluteal line and posterior third of iliac crest lumbar fascia, lateral mass of sacrum, sacrotuberous ligament and coccyx Deepest quarter into gluteal tuberosity of femur, remaining three quarters into iliotibial tract (anterior surface of lateral condyle of tibia) Extends and laterally rotates hip. Maintains knee extended via iliotibial tract; chief antigravity muscle when sitting
Gluteus maximus
Gluteus medius Outer surface of ilium between posterior and middle gluteal lines Posterolateral surface of greater trocanter of femur Abducts and medially rotates hip. Tilts pelvis when walking
Gluteus medius
Tensor fasciae latae Outer surface of anterior iliac crest between tubercle of the iliac crest and anterior superior iliac spine Iliotibial tract (anterior surface of lateral condyle of tibia) Maintains knee extended (assists gluteus maximus) and abducts hip
Tensor fasciae latae
Adductor longus Body of pubis inferior and medial to pubic tubercle Lower two thirds of medial linea aspera Adducts and medially rotates hip
Adductor longus
Gracilis Outer surface of ischiopubic ramus Upper medial shaft of tibia below sartorius Adducts hip. Flexes knee and medially rotates flexed knee
Gracilis
Semimembranosus Upper outer quadrant of posterior surface of ischial tuberosity Medial condyle of tibia below articular margin, fascia over popliteus and oblique popliteal ligament Flexes and medially rotates knee. Extends hip
Semimebranosus
Semitendinosus Upper inner quadrant of posterior surface of ischial tuberosity Upper medial shaft of tibia below gracilis Flexes and medially rotates knee. Extends hip
Semitendinosus
Biceps femoris Long head: upper inner quadrant of posterior surface of ischial tuberosity. Short head:middle third of linea aspera, lateral supracondylar ridge of femur Styloid process of head of fibula. lateral collateral ligament and lateral tibial condyle Flexes and laterally rotates knee. Long head extends hip
Biceps Femoris
Rectus femoris Straight head: anterior inferior iliac spine. Reflected head: ilium above acetabulum Quadriceps tendon to patella , via ligamentum patellae into tubercle of tibia Extends leg at knee. Flexes thigh at hip
Rectus Femoris
Vastus lateralis Upper intertrochanteric line, base of greater trochanter, lateral linea aspera, lateral supracondylar ridge and lateral intermuscular septum Lateral quadriceps tendon to patella, via ligamentum patellae into tubercle of tibia Extends knee
Vastus Lateralis
Vastus intermedius Anterior and lateral shaft of femur Quadriceps tendon to patella, via ligamentum patellae into tubercle of tibia Extends knee
Vastus Intermedius
Vastus medialis Lower intertrochanteric line, spiral line, medial linea aspera and medial intermuscular septum Medial quadriceps tendon to patella and directly into medial patella, via ligamentum patellae into tubercle of tibia Extends knee. Stabilizes patella
Vastus Medialis
Tibialis anterior Upper half of lateral shaft of tibia and interosseous membrane Inferomedial aspect of medial cuneiform and base of 1st metatarsal Extends and inverts foot at ankle. Holds up medial longitudinal arch of foot
Tibialis Anterior
Gastrocnemius Lateral head: posterior surface of lateral condyle of femur and highest of three facets on lateral condyle. medial head: posterior surface of femur above medial condyle Tendo calcaneus to middle of three facets on posterior aspect of calcaneus Plantar flexes foot. Flexes knee
Gastrocnemius
Soleus Soleal line and middle third of posterior border of tibia and upper quarter of posterior shaft of fibula including neck Tendo calcaneus to middle of three facets on posterior surface of calcaneus Plantar flexes foot (aids venous return)
Soleus
Peroneus longus Upper two thirds of lateral shaft of fibula, head of fibula and superior tibiofibular joint Plantar aspect of base of 1st metatarsal and medial cuneiform, passing deep to long plantar ligament Plantar flexes and everts foot. Supports lateral longitudinal and transverse arches
Peroneus Longus
Peroneus brevis Lower two thirds lateral shaft of fibula Tuberosity of base of 5th metatarsal Plantar flexes and everts foot. Supports lateral longitudinal arch
Peroneus Brevis

Previously Listed Muscles

Previously Listed Muscles (not on the 2016 list)

Muscles of the Head and Neck

Muscles of the Head and Neck
Muscle Name Origin Insertion Function Picture
Temporalis Temporal fossa between inferior temporal line and infratemporal crest Medial and anterior aspect of coronoid process of mandible Elevates mandible and posterior fibers retract
Temporalis

Muscles That Move the Upper Extremities

Muscles of the Trunk

Muscles That Move the Lower Extremities