Ornithology/Passeriformes

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Main article: Ornithology


Passeriformes is an order which contains over half of the known species of birds. Also referred to as songbirds, passerines have three forward-facing toes and one backward-facing toe which separates them from other birds. This is the largest group of birds on the Official Bird List, and the information that competitors are expected to know about them has changed over time. Sixteen of the expected calls on the 2020 list come from this order, and several birds such as the olive-sided flycatcher, warbling vireo, and the red-eyed vireo required competitors to know their calls in the past.

Tyrant Flycatchers (Tyrannidae)

Olive-sided Flycatcher
Olive-sided Flycatcher.jpg
Species Contopus cooperi
Habitat Woodlands
Diet Flying insects
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 NT.svg
Near threatened
Eastern Phoebe
Eastern Phoebe.jpg
Species Pyrocephalus rubinus
Habitat Woodlands
Diet Flying insects
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Vermilion Flycatcher
Vermilion Flycatcher.jpg
Species Anas cyanoptera
Habitat Desert, chaparrel, riparian woodlands
Diet Insects
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Great Crested Flycatcher
Great Crested Flycatcher.jpg
Species Myiarchus crinitus
Habitat Deciduous woodland
Diet Insects
Call Link
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Eastern Kingbird
Eastern Kingbird.jpg
Species Tyrannus tyrannus
Habitat Fields, pastures, grasslands
Diet Insects, berries and fruits
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Scissor-tailed Flycatcher
Scissor-tailed Flycatcher.jpg
Species Tyrannus forficatus
Habitat Grasslands
Diet Insects
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Shrikes (Laniidae)

Loggerhead Shrike
Loggerhead Shrike.jpg
Species Lanius ludovicianus
Habitat Grasslands interspersed with trees
Diet Insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Vireos (Vireonidae)

Warbling Vireo
Warbling Vireo.jpg
Species Vireo gilvus
Habitat Open woodlands
Diet Insects, fruit, seeds
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Red-eyed Vireo
Red-eyed Vireo.jpg
Species Vireo olivaceus
Habitat Deciduous forests
Diet Insects, fruit
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Jays and Crows (Corvidae)

Steller's Jay
Steller's Jay.jpg
Species Cyanocitta stelleri
Habitat Forests
Diet Omnivorous
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Blue Jay
Blue Jay.jpg
Species Cyanocitta cristata
Habitat Forests
Diet Omnivorous
Call Link
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Black-billed Magpie
Black-billed Magpie.jpg
Species Pica hudsonia
Habitat Open woodland
Diet Omnivorous
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
American Crow
American Crow.jpg
Species Corvus brachyrhynchos
Habitat Open woodland
Diet Omnivorous
Call Link
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Common Raven
Common Raven.jpg
Species Corvus corax
Habitat Mountains
Diet Omnivorous
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Larks (Alaudidae)

Horned Lark
Horned Lark.jpg
Species Eremophilia alpestris
Habitat Grasslands
Diet Seeds
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Swallows (Hirundinidae)

Purple Martin
Purple Martin.jpg
Species Progne subis
Habitat Lakes and ponds
Diet Insects
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Cliff Swallow
Cliff Swallow.jpg
Species Petrochelidon pyrrhonota
Habitat Lakes and ponds
Diet Insects
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Barn Swallow
Barn Swallow.jpg
Species Hirundo rustica
Habitat Towns
Diet Insects
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Chickadees and Titmice (Paridae)

Black-capped Chickadee
Black capped Chickadee.jpg
Species Poecile atricapillus
Habitat Forests and parks
Diet Insects, seeds and berries
Call Link
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Tufted Titmouse
Tufted titmouse.jpeg
Species Baeolophus bicolor
Habitat Deciduous/mixed woods, parks, gardens
Diet Berries, nuts, insects
Call Link
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Nuthatches (Sittidae)

Red-breasted Nuthatch
Red breasted nuthatch.jpg
Species Sitta canadensis
Habitat Coniferous forests
Diet Insects and seeds
Call Link
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
White-breasted Nuthatch
White breasted nuthatch.jpg
Species Sitta carolinensis
Habitat Woodland, parks, gardens
Diet Insects and nuts
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Creepers (Certhiidae)

Brown Creeper
Brown creeper.jpg
Species Certhia americana
Habitat Mature conifer forests
Diet Small arthropods, seeds
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Wrens (Troglodytidae)

Cactus Wren
Cactus wren.jpg
Species Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus
Habitat Arid deserts
Diet Insects, seeds, fruits
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Marsh Wren
Marsh wren.jpg
Species Cistothorus palustris
Habitat Marshes
Diet Insects, spiders, snails
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Carolina Wren
Carolina wren.jpg
Species Thryothorus ludovicianus
Habitat Forests, farms, suburban areas
Diet Invertebrates
Call Link
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Dippers (Cinclidae)

American Dipper
American dipper.jpg
Species Cinclus mexicanus
Habitat Mountainous streams
Diet Aquatic invertebrates
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Kinglets (Regulidae)

Golden-crowned Kinglet
Golden crowned kinglet.jpg
Species Regulus satrapa
Habitat Coniferous forests
Diet Insects
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Ruby-crowned Kinglet
Ruby crowned kinglet.jpg
Species Regulus calendula
Habitat Spruce-fir forests
Diet Insects, spiders, seeds
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Gnatcatchers (Polioptilidae)

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher
Blue-gray gnatcatcher.jpg
Species Polioptila caerulea
Habitat Open deciduous woods, shrublands
Diet Insects, insect eggs, spiders
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Thrushes (Turdidae)

Eastern Bluebird
Eastern bluebird.jpg
Species Sialia sialis
Habitat Open country such as pastures and fields
Diet Insects and invertebrates, seeds, berries
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Wood Thrush
Wood thrush.jpg
Species Hylocichla mustelina
Habitat Deciduous and mixed forests
Diet Invertebrates and larvae, fruits
Call Link
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
American Robin
American robin.jpg
Species Turdus migratorius
Habitat Woodland and urban areas
Diet Invertebrates, fruits, and berries
Call Link
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Mockingbirds and Thrashers (Mimidae)

Gray Catbird
Gray Catbird.png
Species Dumetella carolinensis
Habitat Thickets, semi-open areas, scrublands
Diet Fruit, berries, invertebrates
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Northern Mockingbird
Northern Mockingbird.jpg
Species Mimus polyglottos
Habitat Scrub, parks, and gardens
Diet Insects and fruits
Call Link
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Brown Thrasher
Brown Thrasher.jpg
Species Toxostoma rufum
Habitat Woodland edges and dense brush
Diet Insects, fruits and nuts
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Waxwings (Bombycillidae)

Cedar Waxwing
Cedar Waxwing.jpg
Species Bombycilla cedrorum
Habitat Open forests, typically near water
Diet Berries and insects
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Wood-Warblers (Parulidae)

Yellow Warbler
Yellow warbler.jpg
Species Setophaga petechia
Habitat Riparian areas, farmlands
Diet Insects
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Magnolia Warbler
Magnolia warbler.jpg
Species Setophaga magnolia
Habitat Dense forests
Diet Arthropods, particularly caterpillars
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Yellow-rumped Warbler
Yellow-rumped warbler.jpg
Species Setophaga coronata
Habitat Coniferous and mixed forests
Diet Insects
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Black-throated Green Warbler
Black-throated green warbler.jpg
Species Setophaga virens
Habitat Coniferous and mixed forests
Diet Insects and berries
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Black-and-white Warbler
Black-and-white warbler.jpg
Species Mniotilta varia
Habitat Mixed forests
Diet Insects and other arthropods
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
American Redstart
American redstart.jpg
Species Setophaga ruticilla
Habitat Deciduous forests
Diet Insects
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Ovenbird
Ovenbird.jpg
Species Seiurus aurocapilla
Habitat Deciduous and mixed forests
Diet Arthropods and snails
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Kentucky Warbler
Kentucky Warbler.jpg
Species Geothlypis formosa
Habitat Deciduous forests, woodland undergrowth
Diet Insects
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Common Yellowthroat
Common yellowthroat.jpg
Species Geothlypis trichas
Habitat Marshes
Diet Insects
Call Link
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

New World Sparrow (Passerellidae)

Spotted Towhee
Spotted towhee.jpg
Species Pipilo maculatus
Habitat Dry forests
Diet Insects, seeds and berries
Call Link
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Black-chinned Sparrow
Black-chinned sparrow.jpg
Species Spizella atrogularis
Habitat Dry brushlands and scrub
Diet Insects
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Lark Sparrow
Lark sparrow.jpg
Species Chondestes grammacus
Habitat Grasslands and open country
Diet Seeds and insects
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Harris's Sparrow
Harris sparrow.jpg
Species Zonotrichia querula
Habitat Forested tundras
Diet Seeds and fruits
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 NT.svg
Near threatened
White-crowned Sparrow
White-crowned sparrow.jpg
Species Zonotrichia leucophrys
Habitat Open areas, meadows and forest edges
Diet Grasses and arthropods
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Chipping Sparrow
Chipping sparrow.jpg
Species Spizella passerina
Habitat Open woodlands
Diet Seeds and insects
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Dark-eyed Junco
Dark-eyed junco.jpg
Species Junco hyemalis
Habitat Coniferous forests
Diet Seeds
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Longspurs and Buntings (Calcariidae)

Lapland Longspur
Lapland longspur.jpg
Species Calcarius lapponicus
Habitat Open spaces and tundras
Diet Seeds and insects
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Snow Bunting
Snow bunting.jpg
Species Plectrophenax nivalis
Habitat Arctic tundras
Diet Seeds, insects, and spiders
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Cardinals and Allies (Cardinalidae)

Northern Cardinal
Northern cardinal.jpg
Species Cardinalis cardinalis
Habitat Dense foliage, forest edges, backyards
Diet Seeds and fruit, some insects
Call Link
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Indigo Bunting
Indigo bunting.jpg
Species Passerina cyanea
Habitat Abandoned fields, forest edges
Diet Insects, seeds, berries
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Painted Bunting
Painted bunting.jpg
Species Passerina ciris
Habitat Semi-open areas such as abandoned farms
Diet Seeds, insects
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Scarlet Tanager
Scarlet tanager.jpg
Species Piranga olivacea
Habitat Deciduous and mixed forests
Diet Insects, fruit
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Blackbirds (Icteridae)

Bobolink
Bobolink.jpg
Species Dolichonyx oryzivorus
Habitat Open areas, large fields
Diet Seeds, insects, spiders
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Red-winged Blackbird
Red-winged blackbird.jpg
Species Agelaius phoeniceus
Habitat Marshes
Diet Insects
Call Link
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Western Meadowlark
Western meadowlark.jpg
Species Sturnella neglecta
Habitat Grasslands, prairies, meadows
Diet Insects, seeds
Call Link
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Yellow-headed Blackbird
Yellow-headed blackbird.jpg
Species Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus
Habitat Wetlands, marshes
Diet Insects and seeds
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Common Grackle
Common grackle.jpg
Species Quiscalus quiscula
Habitat Open woodland, forest edges
Diet Seeds
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Brown-headed Cowbird
Brown-headed cowbird.jpg
Species Molothrus ater
Habitat Grasslands, woodland edges
Diet Seeds
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Baltimore Oriole
Baltimore oriole.jpg
Species Icterus galbula
Habitat Open deciduous woodlands
Diet Insects, fruit, nectar
Call Link
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Fringillids and Allies (Fringillidae)

Red Crossbill
Red crossbill.jpg
Species Loxia curvirostra
Habitat Coniferous forests
Diet Coniferous seeds
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
American Goldfinch
American goldfinch.jpg
Species Spinus tristis
Habitat Open woodland, weedy fields
Diet Seeds
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Evening Grosbeak
Evening grosbeak.jpg
Species Coccothraustes vespertinus
Habitat Coniferous forests
Diet Seeds, invertebrates
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
House Finch
House finch.jpg
Species Haemorhous mexicanus
Habitat Mainly human-created structures, some dry open areas
Diet Seeds, buds, fruits
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Pine Siskin
Pine siskin.jpg
Species Spinus pinus
Habitat Open mixed or coniferous forests
Diet Seeds, insects
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Old World Sparrows (Passeridae)

House Sparrow
House sparrow.jpg
Species Passer domesticus
Habitat Towns, buildings
Diet Grains and seeds
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern

Old World Starlings (Sturnidae)

European Starling
European starling.jpg
Species Sturnus vulgaris
Habitat Towns, buildings
Diet Insects and invertebrates
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern


Previous Birds
Black Phoebe
Black Phoebe.jpg
Species Sayornis nigricans
Habitat Clearings near forests
Diet Insects, fruit, fish
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Western Kingbird
Western Kingbird.jpg
Species Tyrannus verticalis
Habitat Grassland, chaparrel, fields
Diet Flyining insects
Call Link
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern
Clark's Nutcracker
Clark's Nutcracker.jpg
Species Nucifraga columbiana
Habitat forest
Diet pinecones; omnivorous
Conservation
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Least concern