Parasitology

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Parasitology
Inquiry & Lab Event
Forum Threads 2018
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Division B Champion Beckendorff Junior High School
This event was not held recently in Division C

Parasitology is a trial event run in New York for Division B and Division C for the 2017-2018 season. It is also a trial event at the 2019 National Tournament. The event tests competitors' knowledge on ecological parasites, both macroscopic and microscopic. The event is run with stations and/or a slideshow. The event allows competitors to use a 3-ring binder, similar to the identification-based events Invasive Species and Herpetology.

The Event

Parasitology is run as a station-based event, which has teams identify parasites listed from the Official Parasitology List. Accompanied are questions pertaining to the various characteristics of the parasites. The rules mention clearly that no more than half of a test can include identification. The characteristics mentioned in the rules are: "life history, distribution, anatomy and physiology, reproduction, hosts, ecological niche, behavioral adaptations, epidemiology and transmission" (3e). A brief overview of each parasite on the 2018 list is below.

Trematodes

Lancet Liver Fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum)

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Platyhelminthes
    • Class: Trematoda
    • Order: Plagiorchiida
    • Family: Dicrocoeliidae
    • Genus: Dicrocoelium
  • Life History
    • Most adults lay their eggs inside of the host, and the eggs are then passed in the feces of the host. Eggs are about 36-45 micrometers long and 22-30 micrometers wide. Eggs are then eaten by the first host, a snail. A miracidium (larvae) then leaves the egg after it is in the small intestine of the snail. The miracidium then becomes a sporocyst, which asexually reproduces to create daughter sporocysts, which have cercariae (juvenile stage). Those cercariae then exit its the first immediate host, the snail, through a slime ball, which is ingested by an ant, which is the second intermediate host. Cercariae develop into metacercaria, and a few reach the ant's brain and cause an alteration in the ant's behavior. Those ants are then eaten by the definitive host. Inside the definitive host, the metacercaria will migrate to the liver, maturing in the bile duct. Then they produce eggs and the life cycle starts all over again.
  • Anatomy:
    • The Lancet Liver Fluke (Dicrocoelium dendricitum) has a flattened, lancet shaped body that is semitransparent so that its internal structures can be seen. The length of this species varies from 6 to 10mm, while the width ranges from 1.5 to 2.5mm. The vitellaria (a modified ovary present in many flatworms that produce yolk-filled cells to nourish the actual eggs) are in the midsection of the body. The uterus is located on the posterior end and the oral suckers are at the anterior end. Lobed testes are on the anterior end of the ventral side. There isn't any difference between sexes, as there is only one.
  • Reproduction:
    • Reproduction of the Lancet Liver Fluke occurs in the definitive host. Since adult Dicrocoelium dendricitum produce both eggs and sperm, they can self-fertilize (asexual reproduction). They are capable of sexual reproduction as well. There is no particular breeding season for the Lancet Liver Fluke. It takes 6 to 7 weeks for this species to reach sexual maturity.
  • Hosts:
    • Primary Intermediate Host is the snail. The Lancet Liver Fluke doesn't have too much of an effect on the snail.
    • Secondary Intermediate Host is the ant. This species can get to the brain of the ant and alter its behavior. Because of this, when the temperature decreases, the ants appear and attach to the top of the grass, making it easy for animals to eat them along with the grass.
    • Definitive Host could be a variety of animals, including pigs, sheep, goats, and cows. In some cases, the parasite has gotten into humans as well. The definitive host is the animal that consumes the grass on which the affected ant is on.
  • Ecological niche:
    • The Lancet Liver Fluke is a parasite, so its purpose is to use its hosts in order to survive all while affecting some of its hosts.
  • Behavioral adaptations:
    • All of the stages except for the adult stage of the Lancet Liver Fluke are motile, allowing them to move around the hosts' body. The adults are not all motile, and are confined to the bile ducts of the definitive host.
  • Epidemiology/Distribution:
    • Dicrocoelium dendricitumcan be found in Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, South America, and Australia. The parasite are found in areas that have some of their immediate hosts, which include dry, chalky, and alkaline soils.
  • Transmission:
    • Eggs leave a host through its feces, which is then eaten by snails. The cercariae then leave the snail from a slime ball. The parasite is then transmitted to the ant through ingestion of the slime ball. The definitive host gets the parasite by eating an ant that has the Lancet Liver Fluke present in it.
    • In any cases of humans contracting this parasite, there was ingestion of infected ants.
  • Effect/Symptoms:
    • The parasite doesn't have any major effect on the primary intermediate host, the snail.
    • In the ants, some of the ants go to the brain, causing their behavior to alter so that they stay on top of the grass.
    • In the definitive host,the parasite may not cause any symptoms, but in humans, the Lancet Liver Fluke can cause biliary colic, digestive disturbances, and inflammation of the bile ducts and the liver itself. The name of the disease in humans is dicrocoeliasis.
  • Treatment:
    • For humans, the standard treatment of this parasite can be anthelmintic medicines such as Praziquantel, Triclabendazole, or Mirazid.

Euhaplorchis californiensis

  • Taxonomy
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Platyhelminthes
    • Class: Trematoda
    • Subclass: Digenea
    • Order: Ophisthorchiida
    • Family: Heterophyidae
    • Genus: Euhaplorchis
  • Life History
    • The life cycle of Euhaplorchis californiensis starts off as an egg, which measures about .016 x .025mm. These eggs go into the environment when they are expelled in the bird's feces. The egg is then consumed by the California Horn Snail. Once inside, a miracidium (tiny larval forms covered in cilia) emerges from the egg. The miracidium penetrates the gut wall and then goes to the snail's digestive gland, where the miracidium transforms into a sporocyst. The sporocysts produce hundreds of rediae. The rediae get away from the digestive gland and go into the gonadal tissues, where they produce cercariae. These then get out of the snail and into the water surrounding the snails. The cercaria penetrates a killifish, where it loses its tails and heads for the brain, where it excretes a material that forms a cyst around it. The metacercaria then develop into proto-adults. The killifish is consumed by the host bird, and the parasite moves into the intestine, where it completes its life.
  • Anatomy:
    • An adult worm of this species ranges from .230 to .303 mm in length and a width of .115mm at its widest point. It has an ovoid body shape. There are spines that cover the cuticle of the worm, found in rows. The size of the spines get smaller in the posterior (back) third of the body. The oral sucker is on the ventral (belly) side, just behind the leading edge of the body. The oral sucker leads to the pharynx, which connects to the esophagus. The esophagus leads to the gut, which then divides into two ceca. The ceca of this species are a lot smaller in comparison to other trematodes. An adult E. californiensis has ovaries and a testis.
    • In its miracidium stage, this species is a small and tear-drop shaped form that is covered in cilia.
    • In its sporocyst phase, the parasite has a baglike body, and doesn't have a pharynx or the capabilities to move around.
    • When they are rediae, they still have a baglike body, but they are smaller and have a mouth, pharynx, and are capable of moving around. Their size ranges from .165 - .536mm
    • As cercariae, they have a long, thin tail. It is also highly contractile, which makes it difficult for the length to be measured. The tail which is 1.5 times longer that the body, and it has fin folds, with one pair covering on the lateral surface and another on the posterior half of the dorsal and ventral surface.
  • Reproduction:
    • Adults of this species are hermaphroditic. It reproduces asexually when in the first intermediate host (California Horn Snail) when forming rediae. Reproduction is then sexual, involving two adults that allow the species to make eggs and continue the life cycle. Sexual reproduction occurs in the intestines of the definitive host. An adult Euhaplorchis californiensis can produce hundreds of eggs per day.
  • Hosts:
    • The primary intermediate host is the California Horn Snail. The parasite lives in the snail until it reaches the cercariae portion of its life cycle, at which that point it exits the snail and goes into the surrounding water.
    • The secondary intermediate host is the California killifish, where the parasite lives in this host until the killifish is eaten by a bird.
    • The definitive host is the bird that eats the killifish, typically shorebirds and piscivorous birds.
  • Ecological niche:
    • Euhaplorchis californiensis serves the purpose of restricting reproduction of the California Horn Snail because it consumes the snail's gonad, castrating it.
    • The parasite also limits the number of killifish, by affecting their brains and making them more likely to be near the surface, where they are predated by shorebirds.
    • The larvae that are found in the water after they are out of the cell also serve as food for some planktivorous fishes.
  • Behavioral adaptations:
    • As a miracidium, the parasite seeks out the digestive gland.
    • As a sporocyst, the parasite is non-motile and asexually produces the redia.
    • Rediae, unlike the sporocyst, is capable of locomotion and consuming snail tissues.
    • Cercariae are motile and they swim away in order to find the secondary intermediate host.
    • Metacercariae can control the behavior of the killifish that is its host.
    • As an adult in the definitive host, the parasite is capable of locomotion and can orient itself in their environment.
  • Epidemiology/Distribution:
    • Euhaplorchis californiensis is found around California, particularly in salt marshes along the coast of California.
  • Transmission:
    • This parasite is first transmitted to the California Horn Snail by ingestion of the eggs. After exiting the snail, the cercariae are consumed by the California killifish. The parasite then reaches the definitive host (shorebirds) through consumption of infected killifish.
  • Effect/Symptoms:
    • In the California Horn Snail, the parasite causes the snail to lose its ability to reproduce and then it eventually dies.
    • In the killifish, the parasite causes more jerky movements than normal, which also makes it more likely to be caught and consumed by a bird.
  • Treatment:
    • There is no treatment for affected species.

Horsehair worm (Paragordius varius)

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Nematomorpha
    • Class: not assigned
    • Order: Gordioidea
    • Family: Chordodidae
    • Genus: Paragordius
  • Life History:
    • There are four stages in the life of a horsehair worm: the egg, the pre-parasitic larva that hatches from the egg, the parasitic larva that develops within an invertebrate (its host), and the free-living aquatic adult.
    • The worms spend the winter in water.
    • After mating in spring, the female worm deposits a string of eggs 12 to 24 inches long in the water.
    • About three weeks to one month later, minute immature larvae hatch.
    • These larvae must parasitize an invertebrate host to develop.
    • Suitable hosts for different species of horsehair worms include larger predaceous arthropods (often mantids, water beetles, carabid beetles, or dragonflies) or omnivores (such as crickets and other closely related insects, or millipedes)
    • There are several ways that horsehair worms parasitize hosts and complete their development.
    • Although some of these life cycles have been studied, others aren't well understood. Sometimes the host directly ingests the larvae, which immediately move into their parasitic stage and develop within that host.
    • For other horsehair worm species, the larvae of water-inhabiting insects (mayflies, mosquitoes, and chironomids) or tadpoles ingest the pre-parasitic larvae.
    • When horsehair larvae are ingested by these organisms, they encyst (enclose themselves in a cyst-like structure) in the host's body cavity and remain encysted as this initial host develops into an adult.
    • If an insect such as a mantid, cricket, or carabid beetle consumes an adult with an encysted worm, the worm emerges from the cyst and completes its development in the second host.
    • Finally, some pre parasitic horsehair worm larvae encyst on leaves or other debris when a water source dries up.
    • If a suitable host, such as a millipede, eats this cyst when ingesting vegetation, the horsehair worm larvae can move into the parasitic stage.
    • About three months after the horsehair worm parasitizes a host, the host is impelled to seek out water.
    • When the host enters the water, the mature worm emerges.
    • Adult worms are free-living in water and don't feed, but they can live many months.
    • They overwinter in water or mud, and the cycle repeats itself the following spring.
    • Adults mate in water and females lay long gelatinous strings of eggs.
    • Depending on water temperature, the eggs hatch in 2 weeks to 3 months.
    • The life of the microscopic larvae is not completely understood.
    • Within 24 hours of hatching, the worm is thought to form a protective covering or cyst.
    • If the cyst is eaten by a suitable insect, the protective covering dissolves and the released larva bores through the gut wall and into the body cavity of the host.
    • There, it digests and absorbs the surrounding tissue.
    • When mature, it leaves the host insect to start the process again.
  • Anatomy:
    • Nematomorpha possess an external cuticle without cilia.
    • Internally, they have only longitudinal muscle and a non-functional gut, with no excretory, respiratory or circulatory systems.
    • The nervous system consists of a nerve ring near the anterior end of the animal, and a ventral nerve cord running along the body.
    • Reproductively, they have two distinct sexes, with the internal fertilization of eggs that are then laid in gelatinous strings.
    • Adults have cylindrical gonads, opening into the cloaca.
    • The larvae have rings of cuticular hooks and terminal stylets that are believed to be used to enter the hosts.
    • Once inside the host, the larvae live inside the hemocoel and absorb nutrients directly through their skin.
    • Development into the adult form takes weeks or months, and the larva molts several times as it grows in size.
    • The adults are mostly free-living in freshwater or marine environments, and males and females aggregate into tight balls (Gordian knots) during mating.
  • Reproduction:
    • Observations of mating indicate male nematomorpha become highly active during breeding in response to the presence of potential mates.
    • Upon locating a receptive female, a male will wrap his body around her, dropping sperm near her cloacal pore.
    • From there, it is assumed that sperm enter the cloaca, fertilizing eggs in the seminal receptacle.
    • Nematomorpha are sometimes found in large breeding knots.
    • A female may lay millions of eggs during her lifetime.
    • Nematomorpha are dioecious and reproduce sexually.
    • Males have one or two testes, which open to a cloaca via a sperm duct.
    • The cloaca may become swollen, acting as a seminal vesicle.
    • Females may have a pair of elongate ovaries, which open to the cloaca via a seminal receptacle, or no ovaries at all, with oocytes scattered throughout the body cavity.
    • A female may lay millions of eggs during a breeding season.
    • Nematomorpha are known to breed during the late spring, summer, and early fall, and are capable of overwintering.
    • A newly identified species of gordioid, Paragordius obamai, is parthenogenetic, with no males; this is the only species of nematomorpha not known to reproduce sexually.
    • Nematomorpha exhibit no parental investment beyond the production of gametes.
  • Hosts:
    • In Spinochordodes tellinii and Paragordius tricuspidatus, which have grasshoppers and crickets as their hosts, the infection acts on the infected host's brain.
    • This causes the host insect to seek water and drown itself, thus returning the nematomorph to water.
    • P. tricuspidatus is also remarkably able to survive the predation of their host, being able to wiggle out of the predator that has eaten the host.
    • class Malacostraca, phylum Arthropoda
    • order Amphipoda, phylum Arthropoda
    • order Araneae, phylum Arthropoda
    • class Diplopoda, phylum Arthropoda
    • order Tubificidae, phylum Annelida
    • order Orthoptera, phylum Arthropoda
    • order Podocopida, phylum Arthropoda
    • order Trichoptera, phylum Arthropoda
    • class Gastropoda, phylum Mollusca
    • order Odonata class Insecta
    • order Coleoptera, class Insecta
    • order Diptera, class Insecta
    • order Ephemeroptera, class Insecta
    • order Hemiptera, class Insecta
    • order Trichoptera, class Insecta
    • superclass Cyclostomata, phylum Chordata
    • order Osmeriformes, class Actinopterygii
    • order Siluriformes, class Actinopterygii
    • order Perciformes, class Actinopterygii
  • Ecological niche:
    • Horsehair worms parasitize only invertebrates such as insects.
    • To complete their life cycle, the worms must infect large invertebrates that are relatively long lived.
    • Generally, horsehair worms aren't considered an effective biological control agent, because they parasitize only a small percentage of a host population.
    • Horsehair worms are harmless to vertebrates, because they can't parasitize people, livestock, pets, or birds.
    • They also don't infect plants.
    • If humans ingest the worms, they may encounter some mild discomfort of the intestinal tract, but infection never occurs.
  • Behavioral adaptations:
    • Although they are unciliated, nematomorpha possess natatory bristles which, when moved by the body wall muscles, aid in swimming and floating.
    • They are solitary outside of breeding.
    • Nematomorpha larvae parasitize and can influence their hosts' behaviors.
    • Nematomorpha have a circumpharyngeal cerebral ganglion located in the region of the head known as the calotte, and single or paired nerve cords that run in the epidermal nerve tracks.
    • Some species also have modified, pigmented cells located on their calottes, which may be photosensitive.
    • Nematomorpha are highly tactically sensitive; some of their cuticular areoles may be touch receptors.
    • Areoles may also be chemosensitive.
    • Some species have four “giant cells” that are connected to the central nervous system and have many microvilli, and are assumed to be involved in additional sensory functions.
    • Nematomorpha larvae are parasitic, eating and absorbing their hosts' body tissues in early stages and feeding on nutrients from bodily fluids later.
    • They do not feed as adults, but they may be able to absorb nutrients from the water through their body walls.
    • Known food sources (hosts) of gordioid species include crickets, beetles, grasshoppers, cockroaches and mantids.
    • Known hosts of Nectonema species are most often decapod crustaceans, such as crabs and shrimps.
  • Epidemiology/Distribution:
    • Horsehair worms occur in knotted masses or as single worms in water sources such as ponds, rain puddles, swimming pools, animal drinking troughs, and even domestic water supplies.
    • Adult worms measure 1/25 inch in diameter and may reach 1 foot or more in length.
    • An old and still common misconception is that these long, thin, brown to blackish worms develop from horse hairs that fall into water.
    • Because horsehair worms are parasites of invertebrates, especially certain insects, they are commonly encountered in agricultural areas, particularly those having water-impoundment and irrigation facilities.
    • Nectonema species are found in coastal, marine, and pelagic environments as adults, and are found as parasites in decapod crustaceans as larvae.
    • They are known from the waters of Indonesia, Japan, New Zealand, the Northern Atlantic, and the Mediterranean.
    • Gordioids are found in freshwater streams and ponds as adults (a few are found in damp soil) and most typically in terrestrial insects, as parasitic larvae.

They are known from every continent, with the exception of Antarctica.

  • Transmission:
    • Horsehair worm larvae are parasitic and must have a host in which to develop. Insects are their target hosts.
    • This happens in a variety of ways.
    • Some larvae are ingested directly by the host, where they immediately move into their parasitic stage and develop within the host.
    • Some larvae are ingested by larvae of water-inhabiting insects (mayflies, mosquitoes, chironomids) or tadpoles.
    • When they enter these organisms, they encyst (enclose themselves in a cyst-like structure) in the host’s body cavity and remain encysted as this initial host develops into an adult.
    • If the parasitized adult is eaten by an insect such as a mantid, cricket, or carabid beetle, the worm emerges from the cyst and completes its development in the second host.
    • When a water source dries up, some larvae encyst on leaves or other debris which are later eaten by a suitable host (such as a millipede).
    • That’s when trouble begins for the host insect.
    • The horsehair worm larva develops within the host and slowly eats it from the inside.
    • About 3 months after the horsehair worm parasitizes a host, the host is impelled to seek out water.
    • When the host enters the water, the mature worm emerges.
  • Effect/Symptoms:
    • Horsehair worms only parasitize invertebrates such as insects.
    • Horsehair worms are harmless to vertebrates because they cannot parasitize people, livestock, pets, and birds.
    • They also do not infect plants.
    • If humans ingest the worms, they may encounter some mild discomfort of the intestinal tract but infection never occurs.
  • Treatment:
    • Control of horsehair worms in natural water sources is impractical. Furthermore, the worms can be beneficial, because they will parasitize a few pest insect species, although their effect on natural invertebrate populations is minimal.
    • If the worms are found in livestock water troughs, the water can be kept clean with routine flushing. Use a fine mesh filter if pumping water from a surface supply such as a canal or pond. If the worms occur in swimming pools, they can be removed by hand or with a net.
    • Domestic water supply systems should be filtered, chemically treated, and inspected for necessary repairs, especially when the homeowner discovers horsehair worms in wash water, bathtubs, or sinks.
    • Moreover, it isn't unusual to find horsehair worms in the home in such places as shower stalls or toilets where crickets may die and worms emerge into the water.
    • Prevent nuisance insects such as crickets, which are known hosts, from entering the home by caulking or sealing entryways.
    • These long, slender creatures are harmless so there is no need for control.
    • Their presence indicates that a cricket or some other host insects got in the container and died, releasing the worm.
    • Check for cracks or openings that can be screened or sealed.
    • The horsehair worms are not a problem but contamination from other sources can be.

Leucochloridium paradoxum

  • Taxonomy
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Platyhelminthes
    • Class: Trematoda
    • Order: Diplostomida
    • Family: Leucochloridiidae
    • Genus: Leucochloridium
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Schistosoma spp.

  • Taxonomy
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Platyhelminthes
    • Class: Trematoda
    • Order: Diplostomida
    • Family: Schistosomatidae
    • Genus: Schistosoma
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Paragonimus westermani

  • Taxonomy
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Platyhelminthes
    • Class: Trematoda
    • Order: Plagiorchiida
    • Family: Paragonomidae
    • Genus: Paragonimus
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Diphyllobothrium latum

  • Taxonomy
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Platyhelminthes
    • Class: Cestoda
    • Order:Pseudophyllidea
    • Family: Diphyllobothriidae
    • Genus: Diphyllobothrium
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Tapeworms

Taenia saginata

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Platyhelminthes
    • Class: Cestoda
    • Order: Cyclophyllidea
    • Family: Taeniidae
    • Genus: Taenia
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Taenia solium

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Platyhelminthes
    • Class: Cestoda
    • Order: Cyclophylidea
    • Family: Taeniidae
    • Genus: Taenia
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Nematodes

Toxocara canis

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Nematoda
    • Class: Secernentea
    • Order: Ascaridida
    • Family: Toxocaridae
    • Genus: Toxocara
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Trichinella spiralis

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Nematoda
    • Class: Enoplea
    • Order: Trichocephalida
    • Superfamily: Trichinelloidea
    • Genus: Trichinella
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Wuchereria bancrofti

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Nematoda
    • Class: Secernentea
    • Order: Spirurida
    • Suborder: Spinurina
    • Family: Onchoceridae
    • Genus: Wuchereria
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Loa loa

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Nematoda
    • Class: Chromadorea
    • Order: Spirurida
    • Superfamily: Filarioidea
    • Family: Onchocercidae
    • Genus: Loa
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Necator americanus

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Nematoda
    • Class: Secernentea
    • Order: Strongylida
    • Family: Ancylostomatidae
    • Genus: Necator
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Ascaris lumbricoides

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Nematoda
    • Class: Secernentea
    • Order: Ascaridida
    • Family: Ascarididae
    • Genus: Ascaris
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Enterobius vermicularis

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Nematoda
    • Class: Secernentea
    • Subclass: Spiruria
    • Order: Oxyurida
    • Family: Oxyuridae
    • Genus: Enterobius
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Dracunculus medinensis

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Nematoda
    • Class: Chromadorea
    • Order: Spirurida
    • Superfamily: Dracunculoidea
    • Family: Dracunculidae
    • Genus: Dracunculus
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Arthropods

Sacculina sp.

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Arthropoda
    • Subphylum: Crustacea
    • Class: Maxillopoda
    • Order: Cirripedia
    • Family: Succulinidae
    • Genus: Sacculina
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Cymothoa exigua

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Arthropoda
    • Subphylum: Crustacea
    • Class: Malacostraca
    • Order: Isopoda
    • Family: Cymothoidae
    • Genus: Cymothoa
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Pediculus humanus

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Arthropoda
    • Clade: Euarthropoda
    • Class: Insecta
    • Order: Phthiraptera
    • Family: Pediculidae
    • Genus: Pediculus
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Pulex irritans

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Arthropoda
    • Class: Insecta
    • Order: Siphonaptera
    • Family: Pulicidae
    • Subfamily: Pulicinae
    • Genus: Pulex
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Culex spp.

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Arthropoda
    • Clade: Euarthropoda
    • Class: Insecta
    • Order: Diptera
    • Family: Culicidae
    • Subfamily: Culicinae
    • Tribe: Culicini
    • Genus: Culex
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Anopheles spp.

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Arthropoda
    • Clade: Euarthropoda
    • Class: Insecta
    • Order: Diptera
    • Family: Culicidae
    • Genus: Anopheles
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Glossina spp. Fly

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Arthropoda
    • Clade: Euarthropoda
    • Class: Insecta
    • Order: Diptera
    • Section: Schizophora
    • Subsection: Calyptratae
    • Superfamily: Hippoboscoidea
    • Family: Glossinidae
    • Genus: Glossina
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Cochliomyia hominivorax

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Arthropoda
    • Class: Insecta
    • Order: Diptera
    • Family: Calliphoridae
    • Genus: Cochliomyia
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Dermatobia hominis

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Arthropoda
    • Class: Insecta
    • Order: Diptera
    • Family: Oestridae
    • Subfamily: Cuterebrinae
    • Genus: Dermatobia
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Hymenoepimecis argyraphaga

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Arthropoda
    • Class: Insecta
    • Order: Hymenoptera
    • Family: Ichneumonidae
    • Genus: Hymenoepimecis
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Jewel Wasp (Ampulex compressa)

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Arthropoda
    • Clade: Euarthropoda
    • Class: Insecta
    • Order: Hymenoptera
    • Family: Ampulicidae
    • Genus: Ampulex
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Ladybird Wasp Parasite (Dinocampus coccinellae)

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Arthropoda
    • Class: Insecta
    • Order: Hymenoptera
    • Family: Braconidae
    • Subfamily: Euphorinae
    • Genus: Dinocampus
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Deer Ticks (Ixodes scapularis)

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Arthropoda
    • Subphylum: Chelicerata
    • Class: Arachnida
    • Subclass: Acari
    • Order: Ixodida
    • Family: Ixodidae
    • Genus: Ixodes
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Glyptapanteles sp.

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Arthropoda
    • Class: Insecta
    • Order: Hymenoptera
    • Family: Braconidae
    • Subfamily: Microgastrinae
    • Genus: Glyptapanteles
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Polysphincta gutfreundi

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Arthropoda
    • Subphylum: Hexapoda
    • Class: Insecta
    • Order: Hymenoptera
    • Superfamily: Ichneumonoidea
    • Family: Ichneumonidae
    • Genus: Polysphincta
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Fungi

Cordyceps Fungi species

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Fungi
    • Phylum: Ascomycota
    • Class: Sordariomycetes
    • Order: Hypocreales
    • Family: Cordycipitaceae
    • Genus: Cordyceps
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Protozoans

Trypanosoma cruzi

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Protozoa
    • Phylum: Euglenozoa
    • Class: Kinetoplastida
    • Order: Trypanosomatida
    • Genus: Trypanosoma
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Leishmania sp.

Giardia duodenalis

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Protozoa
    • Phylum: Metamonada
    • Order: Diplomonadida
    • Family: Hexamitidae
    • Subfamily: Giardiinae
    • Genus: Giardia
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Entamoeba histolytica

Naegleria fowleri

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Protozoa
    • Phylum: Percolozoa
    • Class: Heterlobosea
    • Order: Schizophyrenida
    • Family: Vahlkampfiidae
    • Genus: Naegleria
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Toxoplasma gondii

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Protozoa
    • Phylum: Apicomplexa
    • Class: Conoidasida
    • Order: Eucoccidiorida
    • Family: Sarcocystidae
    • Subfamily: Toxoplasmatinae
    • Genus: Toxoplasma
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Plasmodium falciparum

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Protozoa
    • Phylum: Apicomplexa
    • Class: Aconoidasida
    • Order: Haemosporida
    • Family: Plasmodiidae
    • Genus: Plasmodium
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Babesia microti

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Protozoa
    • Phylum: Apicomplexa
    • Class: Aconoidasida
    • Order: Piroplasmida
    • Family: Babesiidae
    • Genus: Babesia
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Myxobolus cerebralis

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Cnidaria
    • Class: Myxozoa
    • Order: Bivalvulida
    • Family: Myxobolidae
    • Genus: Myxobolus
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Bacteria

Borrelia burgdorferi

  • Taxonomy:
    • Kingdom: Eubacteria
    • Phylum: Spirochaetes
    • Order: Spirochaetales
    • Family: Spirochaetaceae
    • Genus: Borrelia
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External Links

Trial Rules

Parasites List