Anatomy/Cardiovascular System

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Circulatory System

<Anatomy

For the CIRCULATORY system, you will need to know:

Calculations

it is necessary for you to know the following calculations:

Pulse Pressure= Systolic Pressure - Diastolic Pressure

Heart Rate= Number of heart beats per minute

Stroke Volume= Amount of Blood pumped out of the heart in one beat. Also calculated by- End Diastolic Volume - End Systolic Volume

Cardiac Output= Amount of Blood pumped out of the heart in one minute. Calculated by Heart Rate x Stroke Volume

Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) = 2/3(Diastolic Pressure) x 1/3(Systolic Pressure)


The Heart

-All about the heart, including chambers, parts of the heart, and blood flow through the heart.

a. Main PARTS OF THE HEART IN ORDER OF BLOOD FLOW(also includes vessels leading in and out of the heart ): Superior Vena Cava/Inferior Vena Cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary artery, pulmonary capillary bed(lungs), pulmonary veins, left atrium, bicuspid(mitrial valve), left ventricle, aortic valve, aorta, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, Superior vena cava/inferior vena cava.

-MAIN FUNCTIONS of PARTS OF THE HEART

a. The Atrium. The atrium's function is to transport blood to the ventricles. The right atrium's job is to receive oxygenated lacking blood from the body. The Left Atrium's function is to receive oxygenated blood from the lungs.(NOTE: if you are looking at a diagram of the heart, the right atrium would be on the left side, and the left atrium would be on the right side because you are looking in front of the heart.)

b. Ventricles. The ventricles job is to receives blood from the atrium and then pump it to a location. The right ventricle is suppose to pump oxygen lacking blood from the right atrium to the lungs/pulmonary capillary beds to be filled with oxygen, released of carbon dioxide and it is brought back to the heart to the left ventricles, which pump the blood to all parts of the body.

c. Valves. The valves in the heart are suppose to stop blood from going into the wrong place at the wrong time. For example, the triscupid's job is to stop blood from the right atrium from going to the right ventricles at the wrong time. Main valves in the heart include the tricuspid valve, the pulmonary valve, the bicuspid valve, and the aortic valve.

Heart Diagram


File:HeartDiagram.gif

Labels

1. Aorta (Aortic Arch)

2. Superior Vena Cava

3. Right Pulmonary Artery

4. Right Pulmonary Veins

5. Right Atrium

6. Tricuspid Valve

7. Right Ventricle

8. Inferior Vena Cava

9. Left Pulmonary Artery

10. Left Pulmonary Veins

11. Left Atrium

12. Mitral Valve (It is a bicuspid valve)

13. Aortic Valve (It is a tricuspid valve)

14. Left Ventricle

15. Aorta (Abdominal Aorta)

Blood Vessel

All three types, arteries, veins, capillaries, and also arterioles and venules. You will need to know their structure, their functions, and how they are alike and different. There are three layers to all vessels except for capillaries, which have one epithelial cell thick walls to let nutrients and other materials to go through.

a. Arteries and Arterioles. These blood vessels carry blood away from the heart. For the most part, they carry oxygen rich, "red" blood, but there is one exception. The pulmonary arteries carry oxygen poor, "blue" blood away from the heart to the lungs. These vessels have very thick muscle cell layers, since they need to pump the blood. Arteries are the vessels that lead immediately from the heart and other that lead from those. Arterioles are basically very small versions of arteries, with much less muscle cells. They feed to the capillaries.

b. Veins and venules. These blood vessels carry blood back to the heart from the rest of the body. For the most part, they carry oxygen poor, "blue" blood, but there is one exception. The pulmonary veins carry oxygen rich, "red" blood back to the heart from the lungs. These vessels have very small muscle layers, and have valves. Venules are very small versions of veins. They directly take blood from the capillaries.

c. Capillaries. Capillaries are the smallest types of blood vessels. It is in the capillaries that oxygen exchange and other exchanges of nutrients and wastes take place. It is so because capillaries only have a cell thick wall made of epithelial cells, and materials can easily pass through. Arterioles feed into capillaries and venules take used blood from it.

Blood

There are three main components of blood:

Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)- these blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow and are formed in the process of hematopoiesis (or more specifically, erythropoiesis). These cell lack a nucleus and are used to carry oxygen to the cells throughout the body. Each erythrocyte has a life span of about 120 days, and at the end of their life span they are filtered out of the blood in the spleen. Erythrocytes also cannot reproduce. These cells contain hemoglobin- a protein that is used to allow the erythrocyte to carry oxygen.

Platelets (Thrombocytes)- These blood cells are also formed in the red bone marrow and are formed in the process of hematopoiesis. These cells also do not contain a nucleus. These cells are produced from fragmentation of a larger precursor cell- the megakaryocyte. These cells help allow the blood to clot. Therefore this cell is necessary in the process of hemostasis- the process by which bleeding stops.

White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)- These blood cells are also formed in the red bone marrow and are formed in the process of hematopoiesis. Leukocytes help aid in the immune system. there are many different kinds of leukocytes, including: lymphocytes, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocyte, macrophage.

Types of White Blood Cells
Granulocytes- Granulocytes are white blood cells that have differently stained granules when viewed under a microscope. Granulocytes are Basophils, Neutrophils, and Eosinophils.
Basophils- Basophils are a type of White Blood Cell, and more specifically a granulocyte. It is actually the least common white blood cell in the body. They are thought to be associated with allergies , as they can secrete a substance known as histamine.

Blood Cell Pictures

Erythrocytes:

Real Picture:

File:Redbloodcells.jpg

Graphic:

File:Rbc.jpeg


Thrombocytes:

Real Picture:

File:Red platelet white cells.jpg

(It is the center cell)

Graphic:

File:Platelet.jpg

White Blood Cells:

Basophil-

Real:

File:Basophilreal.jpg

Graphic:

File:Basophil.png

Neutrophil-

Real:

File:Neutrophilreal.jpg

Graphic:

File:Neutrophil.png

Eosinophil-

Real:

File:Real eosinophil.jpg

Graphic:

File:Eosinophil.png

Lymphocyte-

Real:

File:Real lymphocyte.jpg

Graphic:

File:Lymphocyte.png

Macrophage-

Real:

File:RealMacrophage.jpg

Graphic:

File:Macrophage.png

Monocyte-

Real:

File:Monocyte real.jpg

Graphic:

File:Monocyte.png

Hematopoiesis

Hematopoiesis is the process by which all blood cells (erythrocytes, thrombocytes, and leukocytes) are made. All the blood cells start out as a stem cell. Then the stem cell specializes to eventually become one of the types of blood cells.

File:Hematopoiesis.png

Circulatory System Diseases

A list of diseases you will need to know will be listed on the rules every year. The disease needed to know for all competition levels are as follows:

- Arteriosclerosis

- Atherosclerosis

- Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

- Hypercholesterolemia (High Blood Cholesterol)

- Stroke

- Myocardial infarction (Heart Attack)

- Cardiogenic Shock

- Lymphoma

For the National Competition, you will need to know the following:

- Atrial Fibrillation

- Congestive Heart Failure

- Kawasaki's Disease

The information about these that you will need to know include:

-causes

-symptoms

-how to treat and prevent it.


The following is a table of the disease necessary for this year's Anatomy event:

Diseases of the Circulatory System
Disease Name Cause Symptoms Treatment Prevention Effect on the Body
Atherosclerosis/Arteriosclerosis Smoking, High Blood Cholesterol, Hypertension, Build up of plaque in the arteries Normally asymptomatic, if in the coronary arteries- angina, shortness of breath, arrhythmia Lifestyle changes- quit smoking, eat healthier, exercise, lose weight, reduce stress. Angioplasty, Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Control risk factors, know family history of atherosclerosis Hardening of arteries due to the build up of plaque in the arteries
Hypertension Risk factors, age, medical problems, bad diet, obesity, gender, smoking Usually asymptomatic, headaches if serious, people learn after complications start Lifestyle changes, Medicines- diuretics, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, Alpha blockers Control risk factors, medicines High blood pressure, damage to internal organs
High Blood Cholesterol Diet, weight, activity, heredity, age/sex Asymptomatic Control risk factors/ make lifestyle changes, medications- statins, bile acid sequestrants, fibrates Control Risk factors Too much cholesterol in blood. Cholesterol is in plaque. Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) is the "bad" cholesterol, and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) is the "good" cholesterol
Stroke Obstructed blood flow to brain, 2 types- ischemic- too little blood, Hemorrhagic stroke- too much blood in skull Trouble walking, speaking. Paralysis/numbness on 1 side of body, trouble seeing, headache, a Transient Ischemic Attack (a temporary lack of blood to the brain) Control risk factors, restore blood flow, aspirin, Tissue plasminogen activator, angioplasty Control risk factors, anti-platelet drugs, anticoagulants Blood flow blocked to brain, death of brain tissue
Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction) Build up of plaque in coronary arteries, blocking of blood flow to heart, spasm Chest pain- pressure/squeezing/fullness, arm/jaw/back pain, shortness of breath Aspirin, Nitroglycerin, Thrombolytic Meds, Beta Blockers, ACE Inhibitors, Anticoagulants, Angioplasty, Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Control Risk Factors for heart disease Blood flow obstructed to heart, death of heart tissue
Cardiogenic Shock Heart attack, other heart conditions Confusion, lack of alertness, loss of consciousness, rapid heart beat, seating, weak pulse, cold at touch Emergency life support, medicines to help the heart, angioplasty/stents, Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, other surgeries Control risk factors for heart disease, get help immediately if you have a heart attack The weakened heart isn’t able to pump enough blood to the body
Lymphoma Not known Swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, weakness, weight loss, fevers Radiation, Chemotherapy Stop smoking, not much you can do to control Cancer of the immune system- lymphocytes
Kawasaki's Disease Thought to be a response to a virus Swollen lymph nodes, rash, red lips, red palms, redness of eyes, joint pain Aspirin, prevent from getting to coronary vessels, surgical treatment rare No prevention Inflammation of blood vessels- can effect any vessels
Atrial Fibrillation Electrical signals in heart are abnormal Palpitations, Shortness of breath, weakness, chest pain, fatigue Prevent clots, aspirin, Rhythm Control Healthy Lifestyle Abnormal heart electrical conduction, can cause complications
Congestive Heart Failure Coronary Artery Disease, hypertension, arrhythmias, heart muscle diseases Shortness of breath, swelling in ankles, feet, abdomen, legs, fatigue Treat underlying cause, lifestyle management, medicines- ACE inhibitors, beta blockers, diuretics

Artificial pacemaker, implanted defibrillator, heart transplant

Control risk factors for heart diseases When the body cannot pump enough blood to the rest of the body.

Thanks to http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ as a source for this information