Anatomy and Physiology

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Anatomy and Physiology
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2010 2009
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Description

Students are given time to move to as many stations as possible or given a packet while answering questions about the anatomy of humans. It will be related to two major body systems. This year consists of knowledge of the Muscular system and the Skeletal systems.

The Stations

There will be between 10 and 20 stations. They will be marked with Roman Numerals (I,II,III,IV,V...) or they will be numbered (1,2,3,4,5). There will be corresponding pages in your packet with each of the stations. There will be blank lines and they will be numbered (Question 1a,1b,1c,2,3a,3b). On the table, there will be a question sheet with a model or a diagram. On the question sheet it may ask you to identify certain sections of the diagram or model(1a is the right ventricle ,1b is the interventricular septum,1c is the aorta) in your packet on the appropriate line. At some stations, they will include the names of parts, leaving you to organize them. In others, they will require you to know the parts. Along with identification, you will be required to answer questions on the sheet. They may be multiple choice (When it is cold, do your blood vessels a. move deeper in your body, b. move closer the skin, or c. do not move at all) or they could be short answer (describe the order of sound moving through the ear). Record your answers in the answer packet. The major topic may not be the topic that shows up the most. Students may or may not have a time limit at stations. There may also be a different type of testing, where students are given 60 seconds to look at a PowerPoint? slide and answer the question/questions on that slide. The whole group will be tested at once.

There is also a strong possibility that a model would be used. For example, the event writer could use a heart model, a mannequin of the whole body, or a skeleton to base questions off of. To do well on an identification station like this, make sure you know your labeling, and be prepared to find numbers on the model fast. Sometimes it's hard to find certain numbers, so just look very hard, and eventually you will find it. If you really can't find one of the numbers just move on.

The Packet

A packet has pages/sections corresponding to the individual stations. It will have blank lines for you to record your answer. There will be no questions/diagrams in the packet, so all work must be done at the corresponding station. All answers must be recorded in the packet. Spelling does count in the packet. Points may also be taken away if the packet is not neat or legible. As you record your answers, make sure the you are recording on the right page/section/question. This may save you time and effort. Also, it is very possible for there to be lines for your team name, team number, or the participants' names on each page. No matter what, ALWAYS make sure you fill out that information on each page, for if you don't, they can take off points.

Materials

The only materials are a pencil along with a good eraser, a non-programmable calculator, and a 2 SIDED PAGE OF NOTES. NO OTHER RESOURCES ARE ALLOWED. Students must REMEMBER all Diagrams and study material. However, making a binder is still strongly recommended to help study the needed information. Simple diagrams often help with studying more the complicated ones do. Make sure you print the guide to this event in the event info on soinc.org A useful studying book is the Complete Gray's Anatomy. However it can be get complicated. Using a high school or high-level middle school textbook will greatly assist you in preparing for this event. Charts of the heart, bones, and cross sections of the different vessels are recommended. It is also very helpful to search around for any random questions you may have, for the variety of questions that can be asked is great. Also, flashcards are a great way to study for anything. For example put on one side of a flash card "symptoms of osteoarthritis", and on the other side put the symptoms. It is also very helpful to type up a table or list of information about the diseases, so you have a quick reference sheet to study for (whether weeks before competition, or right before it).

Preparing for this event

Make a Binder! This will help you tremendously in preparing for Anatomy. Even though you can't bring it in, it's a great way to keep all your information in the same place and to remember it.

Remember your charts and diagrams. They are very important in this event. It will account for a majority of the questions on the test.

Practice the calculating parts of this event. You will need to calculate blood pressure, mean arterial pressure,etc. Make up sample problems to help you prepare. And Don't forget to remember the equations for all of them!

Covered Information

You will be tested on various topics about two body systems. This year's body systems are the muscular system and the skeletal system. Topics can vary from diseases in those symptoms, to the general anatomy, and the functions of that system.

Circulatory System (not for 2010)

For the CIRCULATORY system, you will need to know:

Calculations

it is necessary for you to know the following calculations:

Pulse Pressure= Systolic Pressure - Diastolic Pressure

Heart Rate= Number of heart beats per minute

Stroke Volume= Amount of Blood pumped out of the heart in one beat. Also calculated by- End Diastolic Volume - End Systolic Volume

Cardiac Output= Amount of Blood pumped out of the heart in one minute. Calculated by Heart Rate x Stroke Volume

Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) = 2/3(Diastolic Pressure) x 1/3(Systolic Pressure)


The Heart

-All about the heart, including chambers, parts of the heart, and blood flow through the heart.

a. Main PARTS OF THE HEART IN ORDER OF BLOOD FLOW(also includes vessels leading in and out of the heart ): Superior Vena Cava/Inferior Vena Cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary artery, pulmonary capillary bed(lungs), pulmonary veins, left atrium, bicuspid(mitrial valve), left ventricle, aortic valve, aorta, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, Superior vena cava/inferior vena cava.

-MAIN FUNCTIONS of PARTS OF THE HEART

a. The Atrium. The atrium's function is to transport blood to the ventricles. The right atrium's job is to receive oxygenated lacking blood from the body. The Left Atrium's function is to receive oxygenated blood from the lungs.(NOTE: if you are looking at a diagram of the heart, the right atrium would be on the left side, and the left atrium would be on the right side because you are looking in front of the heart.)

b. Ventricles. The ventricles job is to receives blood from the atrium and then pump it to a location. The right ventricle is suppose to pump oxygen lacking blood from the right atrium to the lungs/pulmonary capillary beds to be filled with oxygen, released of carbon dioxide and it is brought back to the heart to the left ventricles, which pump the blood to all parts of the body.

c. Valves. The valves in the heart are suppose to stop blood from going into the wrong place at the wrong time. For example, the triscupid's job is to stop blood from the right atrium from going to the right ventricles at the wrong time. Main valves in the heart include the tricuspid valve, the pulmonary valve, the bicuspid valve, and the aortic valve.

Heart Diagram


File:HeartDiagram.gif

Labels

1. Aorta (Aortic Arch)

2. Superior Vena Cava

3. Right Pulmonary Artery

4. Right Pulmonary Veins

5. Right Atrium

6. Tricuspid Valve

7. Right Ventricle

8. Inferior Vena Cava

9. Left Pulmonary Artery

10. Left Pulmonary Veins

11. Left Atrium

12. Mitral Valve (It is a bicuspid valve)

13. Aortic Valve (It is a tricuspid valve)

14. Left Ventricle

15. Aorta (Abdominal Aorta)

Blood Vessel

All three types, arteries, veins, capillaries, and also arterioles and venules. You will need to know their structure, their functions, and how they are alike and different. There are three layers to all vessels except for capillaries, which have one epithelial cell thick walls to let nutrients and other materials to go through.

a. Arteries and Arterioles. These blood vessels carry blood away from the heart. For the most part, they carry oxygen rich, "red" blood, but there is one exception. The pulmonary arteries carry oxygen poor, "blue" blood away from the heart to the lungs. These vessels have very thick muscle cell layers, since they need to pump the blood. Arteries are the vessels that lead immediately from the heart and other that lead from those. Arterioles are basically very small versions of arteries, with much less muscle cells. They feed to the capillaries.

b. Veins and venules. These blood vessels carry blood back to the heart from the rest of the body. For the most part, they carry oxygen poor, "blue" blood, but there is one exception. The pulmonary veins carry oxygen rich, "red" blood back to the heart from the lungs. These vessels have very small muscle layers, and have valves. Venules are very small versions of veins. They directly take blood from the capillaries.

c. Capillaries. Capillaries are the smallest types of blood vessels. It is in the capillaries that oxygen exchange and other exchanges of nutrients and wastes take place. It is so because capillaries only have a cell thick wall made of epithelial cells, and materials can easily pass through. Arterioles feed into capillaries and venules take used blood from it.

Blood

There are three main components of blood:

Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)- these blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow and are formed in the process of hematopoiesis (or more specifically, erythropoiesis). These cell lack a nucleus and are used to carry oxygen to the cells throughout the body. Each erythrocyte has a life span of about 120 days, and at the end of their life span they are filtered out of the blood in the spleen. Erythrocytes also cannot reproduce. These cells contain hemoglobin- a protein that is used to allow the erythrocyte to carry oxygen.

Platelets (Thrombocytes)- These blood cells are also formed in the red bone marrow and are formed in the process of hematopoiesis. These cells also do not contain a nucleus. These cells are produced from fragmentation of a larger precursor cell- the megakaryocyte. These cells help allow the blood to clot. Therefore this cell is necessary in the process of hemostasis- the process by which bleeding stops.

White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)- These blood cells are also formed in the red bone marrow and are formed in the process of hematopoiesis. Leukocytes help aid in the immune system. there are many different kinds of leukocytes, including: lymphocytes, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocyte, macrophage.

Types of White Blood Cells
Granulocytes- Granulocytes are white blood cells that have differently stained granules when viewed under a microscope. Granulocytes are Basophils, Neutrophils, and Eosinophils.
Basophils- Basophils are a type of White Blood Cell, and more specifically a granulocyte. It is actually the least common white blood cell in the body. They are thought to be associated with allergies , as they can secrete a substance known as histamine.

Blood Cell Pictures

Erythrocytes:

Real Picture:

File:Redbloodcells.jpg

Graphic:

File:Rbc.jpeg


Thrombocytes:

Real Picture:

File:Red platelet white cells.jpg

(It is the center cell)

Graphic:

File:Platelet.jpg

White Blood Cells:

Basophil-

Real:

File:Basophilreal.jpg

Graphic:

File:Basophil.png

Neutrophil-

Real:

File:Neutrophilreal.jpg

Graphic:

File:Neutrophil.png

Eosinophil-

Real:

File:Real eosinophil.jpg

Graphic:

File:Eosinophil.png

Lymphocyte-

Real:

File:Real lymphocyte.jpg

Graphic:

File:Lymphocyte.png

Macrophage-

Real:

File:RealMacrophage.jpg

Graphic:

File:Macrophage.png

Monocyte-

Real:

File:Monocyte real.jpg

Graphic:

File:Monocyte.png

Hematopoiesis

Hematopoiesis is the process by which all blood cells (erythrocytes, thrombocytes, and leukocytes) are made. All the blood cells start out as a stem cell. Then the stem cell specializes to eventually become one of the types of blood cells.

File:Hematopoiesis.png

Circulatory System Diseases

A list of diseases you will need to know will be listed on the rules every year. The disease needed to know for all competition levels are as follows:

- Arteriosclerosis

- Atherosclerosis

- Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

- Hypercholesterolemia (High Blood Cholesterol)

- Stroke

- Myocardial infarction (Heart Attack)

- Cardiogenic Shock

- Lymphoma

For the National Competition, you will need to know the following:

- Atrial Fibrillation

- Congestive Heart Failure

- Kawasaki's Disease

The information about these that you will need to know include:

-causes

-symptoms

-how to treat and prevent it.


The following is a table of the disease necessary for this year's Anatomy event:

Diseases of the Circulatory System
Disease Name Cause Symptoms Treatment Prevention Effect on the Body
Atherosclerosis/Arteriosclerosis Smoking, High Blood Cholesterol, Hypertension, Build up of plaque in the arteries Normally asymptomatic, if in the coronary arteries- angina, shortness of breath, arrhythmia Lifestyle changes- quit smoking, eat healthier, exercise, lose weight, reduce stress. Angioplasty, Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Control risk factors, know family history of atherosclerosis Hardening of arteries due to the build up of plaque in the arteries
Hypertension Risk factors, age, medical problems, bad diet, obesity, gender, smoking Usually asymptomatic, headaches if serious, people learn after complications start Lifestyle changes, Medicines- diuretics, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, Alpha blockers Control risk factors, medicines High blood pressure, damage to internal organs
High Blood Cholesterol Diet, weight, activity, heredity, age/sex Asymptomatic Control risk factors/ make lifestyle changes, medications- statins, bile acid sequestrants, fibrates Control Risk factors Too much cholesterol in blood. Cholesterol is in plaque. Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) is the "bad" cholesterol, and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) is the "good" cholesterol
Stroke Obstructed blood flow to brain, 2 types- ischemic- too little blood, Hemorrhagic stroke- too much blood in skull Trouble walking, speaking. Paralysis/numbness on 1 side of body, trouble seeing, headache, a Transient Ischemic Attack (a temporary lack of blood to the brain) Control risk factors, restore blood flow, aspirin, Tissue plasminogen activator, angioplasty Control risk factors, anti-platelet drugs, anticoagulants Blood flow blocked to brain, death of brain tissue
Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction) Build up of plaque in coronary arteries, blocking of blood flow to heart, spasm Chest pain- pressure/squeezing/fullness, arm/jaw/back pain, shortness of breath Aspirin, Nitroglycerin, Thrombolytic Meds, Beta Blockers, ACE Inhibitors, Anticoagulants, Angioplasty, Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Control Risk Factors for heart disease Blood flow obstructed to heart, death of heart tissue
Cardiogenic Shock Heart attack, other heart conditions Confusion, lack of alertness, loss of consciousness, rapid heart beat, seating, weak pulse, cold at touch Emergency life support, medicines to help the heart, angioplasty/stents, Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, other surgeries Control risk factors for heart disease, get help immediately if you have a heart attack
Lymphoma Not known Swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, weakness, weight loss, fevers Radiation, Chemotherapy Stop smoking, not much you can do to control Cancer of the immune system- lymphocytes
Kawasaki's Disease Thought to be a response to a virus Swollen lymph nodes, rash, red lips, red palms, redness of eyes, joint pain Aspirin, prevent from getting to coronary vessels, surgical treatment rare No prevention Inflammation of blood vessels- can effect any vessels
Atrial Fibrillation Electrical signals in heart are abnormal Palpitations, Shortness of breath, weakness, chest pain, fatigue Prevent clots, aspirin, Rhythm Control Healthy Lifestyle Abnormal heart electrical conduction, can cause complications
Congestive Heart Failure Coronary Artery Disease, hypertension, arrhythmias, heart muscle diseases Shortness of breath, swelling in ankles, feet, abdomen, legs, fatigue Treat underlying cause, lifestyle management, medicines- ACE inhibitors, beta blockers, diuretics

Artificial pacemaker, implanted defibrillator, heart transplant

Control risk factors for heart diseases When the body cannot pump enough blood to the rest of the body.

Thanks to http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ as a source for this information

Skeletal System

For the skeletal system you will need to know:

  1. The names of the bones and their surface anatomy as shown on a diagram or X-ray
  2. Name, structure, and function of types of joints and ranges allowed by each joint
  3. Structures of bones in cross-section
  4. How to distinguish between types of vertebrae
  5. Diseases such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, disc herniation, and scoliosis
  6. Effects of exercise on the skeletal system


Skeletal System Diseases

Diseases of the Skeletal System
Disease Name Cause Symptoms Treatment Prevention Effect on the Body
Osteoarthritis Faster break down of cartilage, extra strain on joints, joint injuries Pain in joints, stiffness, limited joint movement, tenderness/swelling Maintain healthy weight, exercise, Medications- acetaminophen, NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) Exercise, keep healthy weight, avoid joint injuries Break down of cartilage of joints, joints become hurtful
Osteoporosis Age, Gender, more bone being absorbed than new bone being made Back pains, stooped posture, easily broken bones, loss of height Calcium and Vitamin D, exercise, healthy diet, Medications- calcitonin, bisphosphonates Thinning of the bone
Disc Herniation Wear and tear of disc, injuries, strain on disc, age Pain, numbness, weakness, leg pain, muscle pain Limit activities, use ice or heat, aspirin, NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) Healthy body weight, exercise, quit smoking, practice good posture Bulging/ breaking of discs
Scoliosis Disorders at birth, injuries, infections Curvature of the spine, one shoulder stick out more than the other Brace, pain relieving meds (aspirin, ibuprofen) Cannot be prevented Curvature of the spine
Spinal Stenosis Osteoarthritis, formation of bone spurs in spine Pain, loss of balance, loss of bladder control Physical therapy, NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs), rest, limited activity, back brace Exercise, use good body mechanics, healthy weight, good posture Narrowing in areas of spine- puts pressure on nerves
Rheumatoid Arthritis Genes- allow for autoimmune disorder of joints- body destroys own joints Pain and swelling in joints, fatigue, loss of appetite, weight loss Physical therapy, Medications- NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs), DMARDs (Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs) Cannot be prevented Inflammation of tissues lining joints- causes destruction of joints
Gout Too much uric acid in the blood, obesity, a lot of alcohol, other conditions, taking certain medications Pain/swelling in the joint, skin around joint red and itchy, intolerable pain, fever Rest, healthy weight, limit alcohol, Medications- NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) Control risk factors A kind of arthritis, formation of hard crystals in joints
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Genetic factors, overly active immune system, infection that activates immune system Joint pain, swelling, irritability Exercise, assistive devices, Medications- NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs), DMARDs (Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs) Cannot be prevented Rheumatoid arthritis in children

Muscular System

Endocrine System

Sample Exercise

Here are some sample problems for Anatomy

1. Write down the detailed path of the blood traveling through the heart, to the rest of the body, and back again.


2. List the three types of blood vessels and describe how they are different and alike.


3. What is the function of the atrium? ventricles?


4. What is the job of the Vena cava? the Aorta?


5. What does the valves of the heart do?


Disease and Drugs.

What are some of the effects of nicotine on the body?


How does caffeine affect your blood pressure?


How does alcohol affect the human body?


How will the deposit of plaque in your blood vessels affect your health? What are some of the diseases you will get?


Calculations

If systolic pressure is 112 and diastolic pressure is 80, what is the pulse pressure? and the Mean Arterial Pressure? Please list the equations you used.


One of your classmates has a heart rate of 72, a systolic pressure of 138 and diastolic pressure of 65, and an end diastolic volume of 105 and end systolic volume of 46. What is their cardiac output? Please write the equation you used.



Below is a diagram of the spinal cord followed by a question sheet and an answer sheet. In the answer sheet, remember to imagine lines after the numbers.

A2j spinalcolumn.jpg


5. What are the smallest kind of blood vessel?


6. Name the kind of circulation if the blood goes from the heart to the lungs.


7. Name the kind of circulation if the blood goes from the lungs to the muscles to the heart.


8. Name the layers of the heart from outside to inside.


9. Where is the transportation of nutrients to a muscle occur?

Useful links

Most important link, to the official site of the Anatomy event [ http://soinc.org/anatomy_b ]

for disease information webmd.com [1]

US National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health [http://medlineplus.gov/ ]

the national institute of drug abuse [2]

The text and some images from Gray's Anatomy: http://www.bartleby.com/107/


Detailed, interactive diagrams on parts of the systems: http://www.innerbody.com/htm/body.html

Scioly Test Exchange [3]

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [4]

Notes

Gives simple, printable diagrams: http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/titlepage.shtml