Difference between revisions of "Astronomy/DSOs"
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Revision as of 22:43, 18 September 2020
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The Astronomy DSO list specifies which Deep Space Objects may be covered in the Astronomy event that year, and is roughly analogous to the Deep Sky Objects typically found in the rules for the Division B event Reach for the Stars. It is typically listed in section 3.c of the rules.
The DSO list can seem daunting at first. A good strategy for learning them is to take personalized notes from various sources while including images for identification.
- Categorize the DSOs by their types or stages in stellar evolution (e.g. Brown Dwarfs, Red Giants, White Dwarfs, Cepheid Variables, Supernova remnants, Globular Clusters). Take notes on each of these stages, as well as what makes them significant in the study of astronomy.
- For example - a Type Ia Supernova can either be the result of collision of two white dwarfs or accretion of matter from a stellar companion (often reaching the Red Giant stage), and its mostly uniform brightness can help astronomers determine distance to distant galaxies using the distance modulus.
- For each DSO, take notes on what makes it unique and significant. The Chandra X-ray Observatory posts videos at the start of the competition season that briefly explain each object's significance. The Chandra photo album and NASA's APOD are also good resources for images and information on DSOs. For Variable stars, AAVSO is a helpful resource.
- Find photos (and light curves for variable stars) of the Deep Space Objects, as many as possible and across all wavelengths. Almost all tests include tasks to identify DSOs based on images or find all images of a certain DSO/category, and more difficult tests sometimes include more obscure images of the DSOs. Include the wavelength of light a certain image was taken in.
- Take notes on miscellaneous information about each DSO, including, but not limited to: constellation, alternate names, magnitude, stellar classification, right ascension/declination, and color index.
- Take practice tests. They can help reveal weaknesses in any notes on Deep Space Objects.
- If certain information about a DSO is given (such as the the masses and the separation of the binary system), calculate the period. Use information in any pre-existing notes to calculate other values before the test, saving valuable time.
|SN UDS10Wil||Cetus||10.5 Gly, 3.2 Gpc||02h 17m 46.3s||-05° 15′ 24.00″||Hubble|
|SN UDS10Wil is the furthest supernova so far of the type used to measure cosmic distances. It was discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope and was discovered as part of a three-year Hubble program that started in 2010 to survey faraway Type 1a supernovae known as the CANDELS survey.|
|NGC 2623||[]||Cancer||13.36||250 Mly, 76.7 Mpc||08h 38m 24.1s||+25° 45′ 16.70″|
|NGC 2623 is the result of a major collision and subsequent merger between two galaxies. The merger is going through late stages and is thought to eventually resemble what the Milky Way will look like when it collides with our neighboring galaxy, Andromeda in 4 billion years.|
|GRB 150101B||[]||Virgo||1.7 Gly, 0.52 Gpc||12h 32m 04.96s||−10° 56′ 00.7″||Chandra|
|GRB 150101B is a likely merger of 2 neutron stars 1.7 billion light years from Earth. It is fairly similar to GW170817, the first source shown to emit gravitational waves and light.|
|JKCS 041||[]||Cetus||~9.9 Gly, ~ 3.04 Gpc||02h 26m 44s||−04° 41′ 37″||Chandra|
|JKCS 041 is a group of galaxies about 9.9 billion light years. it is the farthest galaxy group from Earth discovered. It has a redshift of 1.9.|
|MACS J0717.5+3745||Auriga||5.4 Gly, 1.7 Gpc||07h 17m 36.50s||+37° 45′ 23″||Chandra|
|MACS J0717.5+3745 is a massive galaxy cluster where 4 galaxy subclusters are colliding.|
|MACS J1149.5+2223||[]||Leo||Approximately 5 billion light-years||11h 49m 36.3s||+22° 23′ 58.1″||Chandra|
|MACS J1149.5+2223 is a galaxy cluster which bends light from more distant objects due to its huge mass through gravitational lensing.|
|Bullet Cluster (1E 0657-56)||Carina||3.7 billion light-years, 1.141 Gpc||06h 58m 37.9s||−55° 57′ 0″|
|The Bullet Cluster is a system of two colliding galaxy clusters. Most of its mass is concentrated around galaxies instead of gas, which could be evidence for the existence of dark matter.|
|H1821+643||[]||Draco||14.24||3.4 Gly, 1.0 Gpc||18h 21m 57.24s||+64° 20′ 36.23″||Chandra|
|H1821+643 is a luminous quasar which has been used to search for the WHIM. At its core is one of the most massive black holes known.|
|GOODS-S 29323||Fornax||13.2 Gly, 4.05 Gpc||03h 32m 28s||–27° 48′ 30″||Chandra|
|GOODS-S 29323 is a direct collapse black hole seed candidate. It could support a model of SMBH formation which would allow them to form quickly in the early universe.|
|H2356-309||Sculptor||Approximately 2 billion light-years||23h 59m 07.9s||-30° 37′ 41.00″||Chandra|
|H2356-309 is a blazar which was used to detect WHIM (in the form of an oxygen absorption line) in the Sculptor Wall.|
|PSS 0133+0400||[]||[]||Pisces||Approximately 10.1 billion light-years||01h 31m 04.8s||+03° 45′ 37.8″||Chandra|
|PSS 0133+0400 is a quasar which was used in a study to find out that the strength or amount of dark energy may be increasing.|
|PSS 0955+5940||[]||[]||Ursa Major||Approximately 10.2 billion light-years||09h 51m 37.4s||+59° 54′ 43.6″||Chandra|
|PSS 0955+5940 is a quasar which was used in the same study as PSS 0133+0400.|
|GW151226||[]||[]||Approximately 1.4 billion light-years||n/a||n/a||LIGO|
|GW151226 was a Gravitational-Wave signal observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC making it the second definitive observation of a merging binary black hole system detected by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration.|
|M87||Virgo||7.19||53.5 ± 1.6 Mly, 16.4 ± 0.5 Mpc||12h 30m 49.42338s||+12° 23′ 28.0439″||Chandra|
|M87 is a nearby elliptical galaxy with an active galactic nucleus. The central SMBH of M87 was imaged by the Event Horizon Telescope as the first black hole to be imaged.|
|3C 273||Virgo||12.9||2.443 Gly, 749 Mpc||12h 29m 06.7s||+02° 03′ 09″||AAVSO|
|3C 273 is the most optically bright quasar, and also one of the closest, in our night sky. Along with 3C 48, it was the first object to be identified as what we now know to be quasars.|
|DLA0817g||[]||[]||Cancer||12.276 Gly, 3.764 Gpc||08h 17m 40.86s||+13° 51' 38.2"||NRAO|
|DLA0817g is the oldest and farthest known disk galaxy.|
|Name||Images||Area Surveyed||Instrument(s)||Wavelength(s)||Objects||External Links|
|Chandra Isotropic Universe Survey||Full Sky||Chandra X-Ray Observatory, XMM-Newton||X-Ray||Galaxy Clusters||Chandra|
|The purpose of this survey is to explore whether or not the universe is isotropic. It uses X-Ray luminosity of galaxy clusters to calculate expansion speeds across the sky.|
|Hubble CANDELS Survey||~800 square arcmin||Hubble Space Telescope||Near-Infrared to Mid-Ultraviolet||Distant Galaxies||NASA|
|The purpose of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey is to collect data on the first third of galactic evolution by imaging galaxies of redshift 1.5-8. This survey also measures supernovae with a redshift of 1.5 or greater to test their accuracy as standard candles for cosmology.|
Previous DSO Lists
-**is part of a special viewing campaign this year and will be included up to at least 2011.
-*is part of a special viewing campaign this year and will be included up to at least 2011.
- Astronomy/Stellar Evolution
- Astronomy/Variable Stars
- Astronomy/Star and Planet Formation
- Astronomy/Type Ia Supernovae
- Astronomy/Type II Supernovae