Astronomy/DSOs

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The Astronomy DSO list specifies which Deep Sky Objects may be covered in the Astronomy event that year.

2013 DSOs

2012 DSOs
Name Images Constellation Magnitude Distance Coordinates External Links
Cassiopeia A Cassiopeia A.jpg Cassiopeia Apparent: ?? ~11,000 ly Right Ascension: 23h 23m 26.7s ; Declination: +58° 49' 3.00" [1]
Cassiopeia A is the youngest supernova remnant in the Milky Way Galaxy.
IGR J17091 IGR J17091.jpg Igr one.jpg Scorpius Apparent: ~28,000 ly Right Ascension: 17h 09m 7.92s; Declination: -36° 24' 25.20" [2]
IGR J17091 has the highest ever known wind speed at 20 million miles per hour, which is only 3% of the speed of light.
NGC 6888/ WR 136 NGC 6888.jpg WR 136 and NGC 6888.jpg Cygnus Apparent: ~5,000 ly Right Ascension: 20h 12m 35.00s; Declination: +38° 26' 30.00" [3]
NGC 6888, also known as the Crescent Nebula, was created the powerful winds coming off of the Star WR 136, or HD 192163.
PSR J0108-1431 J0108-1431.jpg J0108-1431 xray.jpg Cetus Apparent: ~770 ly Right Ascension: 01h 08m 08.30s; Declination: -14° 31' 48.50" [4], [5]
PSR J0108-1431 is, by far, the nearest pulsar, or neutron star, to Earth.

Previous Years' DSO Lists

<spoiler text="2012 DSOs">

2012 DSO's
Name Images Constellation Magnitude Distance Coordinates External Links
Mira (Omicron Ceti) Star mira full.jpg Mira illustration.jpg Cetus Apparent: 2.0 to 10.1 ~420 ly Right Ascension: 02h 19m 20.70s; Declination: -02° 58' 39.51" Chandra NASA Science News
Mira is the prototype for Mira variables, which are red giants that oscillate over long periods.
SNR 0509-67.5 SNR0509675.jpg SNR 0509.jpg Dorado ~160,000 ly Right Ascension: 05h 09m 31.7s; Declination: -67° 31' 18.01” NASA APOD Chandra
A supernova remnant in the LMC (Large Magellanic Cloud). The explosion occurred 400 years ago for Earth observers.
CH Cyg CHcyg.jpg Cygnus Apparent: 5.6 to 10.5 ~815 ly Right Ascension: 19h 24m 33.07s; Declination: +50° 14' 29.13" Chandra AAVSO
CH Cyg is a symbiotic star system between a red giant and a white dwarf.
Kepler's SNR (SN 1604) KeplerSNR.jpg Ophiuchus ~13,000 ly Right Ascension: 17h 30m 40.80s; Declination: -21° 29' 11.00" Chandra NASA APOD
A Type 1a supernova remnant that was observed by Johannes Kepler in 1604.
Tycho's SNR (SN 1572) TychoSNR.jpg Cassiopeia ~9000 ly Right Ascension: 00h 25m 17s; Declination: +64° 08' 37" Chandra NASA APOD
A Type 1a supernova remnant that was observed in 1572 and later studied by Tycho Brahe.
Messier 15 (NGC 7078) File:M15.jpg Pegasus Apparent: 6.2 ~33,600 ly Right Ascension: 21h 29m 58.38s; Declination: +12° 10′ 00.6″ Messier Catalogue U of Alabama
M15 is one of the oldest known and closest globular clusters to Earth.
Carina Nebula File:CarinaNebula.jpg Carinanebula.jpg Carina Apparent: 1.0 ~7500 ly Right Ascension: 10h 45m 04s; Declination: -59° 41' 03" Chandra Universe Today
The Carina Nebula is a very bright and large nebula. It contains Eta Carinae, which is one of the largest known stars and a prime candidate for a hypernova.
T Tauri TTauri.jpg T Tauri 2MASS.jpg Taurus Apparent: 9.3-14 462 ly Right Ascension: 04h 21m 59.43s; Declination: +19° 32′ 06.42″ NASA APOD Universe Today
T Tauri is the prototype for T Tauri stars, which are the stars in the life stage between protostar and main sequence. there is a nebula located close to the star called Hind's Variable Nebula, which changes in luminosity as T Tauri varies.
Sirius B SirB.jpg Canis Major Apparent: 8.30; Absolute: 11.18 8.6 ly Right Ascension: 06h 45m 11s; Declination: -16° 42' 05.00" Chandra NASA APOD
Sirius B is the smaller, white dwarf component to the Sirius star system.
RR Lyrae RRL.jpg RRlyrae.gif Lyra Apparent: 7.1 to 8.2 ~850 ly Right Ascension: 19h 25m 27.91s; Declination: +42° 47′ 03.69″ AAVSO Encyclopedia of Science
RR Lyrae is the prototype for RR Lyrae variables, which are low-mass stars that pulsate regularly.
U Scorpii UScorpii.jpg Usco.png Scorpius Apparent: 8.7 to 19.3 >15000 ly Right Ascension: 16h 22m 30.78s; Declination: -17° 52′ 42.8″ Universe Today Sky and Telescope
U Scorpii is a recurrent nova, and one of ten known recurrent novae in the Milky Way. Its most recent outburst was in January 2010, and it was the best-observed outburst in history.
Rosette Nebula (Caldwell 49, 3C 163) Rosette.jpg Rosette Nebula.jpg Monoceros Apparent: 9.0 4700 ly Right Ascension: 06h 31m 52.00s; Declination: +04° 55' 57.00" Atlas of the Universe Chandra
A large stellar nursery that produces several O and B type stars. It has an appearance similar to a rose, hence its name.
BP Psc BPP.jpg Pisces Apparent: 11.9 ~1000 ly Right Ascension: 22h 22m 24.70s; Declination: -02° 13' 41.40" Chandra NASA NGC 2440 PDF
BP Psc appears to be a red giant, but it has an accretion disc similar to that of a protostar. This has led to hypotheses that BP Psc has recently consumed a companion star or a large, gaseous planet.
NGC 2440 (VV 45) NCG2440.jpg Ngc2440.jpg Puppis Apparent: 11.5 ~4000 ly Right Ascension: 07h 41m 54.91s; Declination: -18° 12′ 29.7″ NASA APOD Hubble
NGC 2440 is a planetary nebula whose star of origin is now an extremely hot white dwarf.
RX J0806.3+1527 (HM Cnc) RXstar.jpg Cancer Apparent: 21.1 ~1600 ly Right Ascension: 08h 06m 23.20s; Declination: +15° 27' 30.20" Chandra Space.com
An x-ray binary system composed of two white dwarves that are rapidly orbiting each other. Their orbits are slowly getting closer, and the stars will eventually collide. Since they are faint, they are being observed by x-ray emissions.
DEM L238 & L249 DEMsnrs.jpg Deml238 l249.jpg Dorado ~160,000 ly Right Ascension: 05h 34m 08.80s; Declination: -70º 34' 28.00" Chandra Space Daily
Two remnants from neighboring stars that exploded as white dwarves in the LMC.

<spoiler text="2011 DSOs">

2011 DSO's
Name Images Constellation Magnitude Distance Coordinates External Links
Epsilon Aurigae Epsilon aurigae.jpg Epsilon Auriga.jpg Auriga Apparent: 2.9 normally, 3.8 during eclipse; Absolute: -6.0 ~2000 light years (ly) Right Ascension: 05h 01m 58.1s; Declination: +43° 49’ 24” AAVSO: Epsilon Aurigae Citizen Sky: Epsilon Aurigae
Epsilon Aurigae is an eclipsing binary. One part is a white giant, and the other appears to be a star shrouded by a dark cloud of dust. In the middle of this cloud, there is a clearing where the star probably is, so during an eclipse, the system appears momentarily brighter as this clearing passes over the giant. An observation project of Epsilon Aurigae took place from 2009-2011.
NGC 6240 (IC 4625, UGC 10592, PGC 59186, VV 617) Ngc 6240.jpg Ngc 6240 xray inset.jpg Ophiuchus Apparent: 12.8 ~330 million ly Right Ascension: 16h 52m 58.9s; Declination: +02° 24' 03" Chandra: NGC 6240 NASA APOD: NGC 6240
NGC 6240 is an extremely luminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG). It is the result of two smaller galaxies colliding to form one large galaxy with two nuclei and an irregular shape. Possible hypotheses for the high infrared emission are intense star formation or the presence of one or two AGNs.
3C 321 3C321 wavelengths.jpg 3c321 artist.jpg Serpens ~1.4 billion ly Right Ascension: 15h 31m 42.7s; Declination:: +24° 04’ 25.00" Chandra: 3C 321 Space.com: 3C 321
3C 321 is a binary system of galaxies. One of the galaxies is directing a large jet of energy at its companion. It is nicknamed the “Death Star Galaxy” and it is theorized that the galaxy with the jet contains a supermassive black hole. It was discovered in 2007.
Centaurus A (NGC 5128, Arp 153, PGC 46957, Caldwell 77, 4U 1322-42) Centaurus Apparent: 6.84 ~15 million ly Right Ascension: 13h 25m 27.6s; Declination: -43° 01’ 09” SEDS: Centaurus A Solstation.com: Centaurus A
Cen A is one of the closest radio galaxies containing an AGN to Earth. It is the fifth brightest galaxy in the sky, although it is mostly only observable from the Southern Hemisphere. It is slowly consuming another spiral galaxy, causing rapid star formation, helping the radiation coming from the nucleus. The supermassive black hole at the center sends out jets of X-rays and radio waves in which the inner parts are moving at one half of the speed of light.
Stephan's Quintet (HGC 92, Arp 319, VV 288) Pegasus Apparent: 13.9 300-370 million ly Right Ascension: 22h 35m 57.5s; Declination: +33° 57’ 36” Chandra: Stephan's Quintet NASA APOD: Stephen's Quintet
Stephan's Quintet is a visual grouping of five galaxies. Four of the galaxies are in a compact group, and collisions have altered the form of the galaxies. Eventually, the four will likely merge into one large galaxy. The collisions have caused emissions of both x-rays and molecular hydrogen. The four than are physically interlocked are NGC 7317, NGC 7318a, NGC 7318b, and NGC 7319. NGC 7320 is not actually part of the interacting cluster but is a foreground object in the same area as the other galaxies. The galaxies NGC 7335, NGC 7336, and NGC 7337 in the NGC 7331 group, or Deer Lick Group, was used to determine this. Occasionally, the tidal forces cause NGC 7318b to emit huge shock waves of X-rays. It is also the brightest member of the group with an apparent magnitude of 13.9. NGC 7319 is classified as a Type 2 Seyfert galaxy.
MACSJ0717.5+3745 Auriga Right Ascension: 07h 17m 31.00s; Declination: +37° 45’ 39.60” Chandra: MACSJ0717.5+3745
MACSJ0717.5+3745 (MACSJ0717 for short) a galaxy cluster where four separate galaxies have been involved in a collision. The collisions are caused by a stream of hot gas known as a filament that pours into the cluster. It is one of the most complex clusters ever studied and was discovered in 2003.
Bullet Cluster (1E 0657-56) Carina Right Ascension: 06h 58m 37.9s; Declination: - 55° 57’ 0” Chandra: Bullet Cluster NASA APOD: Bullet Cluster
The Bullet Cluster is a system of two colliding clusters of galaxies. It is one of the best examples of evidence for the existence of dark matter. In the collision, the stars mostly did not interact, but the gases and other matter were significantly altered. This other matter is hypothesized to be dark matter, and is supported by the supposed Modified Newtonian Dynamics that explains the lensing phenomenon in the cluster. It is one of the hottest known clusters of galaxies.
Perseus A (NGC 1275, PGC 12429, UGC 2669, Caldwell 24, 3C 84, QSO B0316+413) Ngc1275 web.jpg Perseus Apparent: 12.6. Right Ascension: 03h 19m 48.1s; Declination: +41° 30’ 42” NASA APOD: Perseus A Hubble Heritage: Perseus A
Perseus A is a Type 1.5 Seyfert galaxy, which signifies that both broad and narrow lines on the emission spectrum are present, but there are less pronounced broad lines than a Type 1 Seyfert galaxy. It consists of two galaxies, one in the center and another that lies in front of it. Long filaments of gas stretch out from the system.
SN 2006gy Perseus Peak Apparent: 14.2 Right Ascension: 03h 17m 27.10s; Declination: +41° 24’ 19.50” Chandra: SN 2006gy NASA APOD: SN 2006gy
SN 2006gy was an extremely energetic supernova that reached an extremely high luminosity level. The large size of the star caused it to gain energy in its core, eventually causing it to be blown apart violently. This type of supernova is sometimes referred to a hypernova, and it compared to the star Eta Carinae in the Milky Way.
SN 1996cr Circinus Right Ascension: 14h 13m 10.05 s; Declination: -65° 20’ 44.8” Chandra: SN 1996cr
SN 1996cr is a powerful supernova that was noticed in a Chandra image after it was taken, and was widely studied afterward. The star exploded between 1995 and 1996, but was not discovered until 2001. It is of interest because it is located in an active galaxy with a growing supermassive black hole and rapid star formation.
NGC 4603 (PGC 42510) Centaurus Apparent: 12.3 Right Ascension: 12h 40m 55.2s; Declination: -40° 58’ 35” NASA APOD: NGC 4603 HyperPhysics: NGC 4603
NGC 4603 is a large spiral galaxy. It is the most distant galaxy in which Cepheids have been used to determine the distance to the galaxy. Using this distance and determining recession velocity, it has served as a benchmark for determining the Hubble constant (70 km/sec/Mpc ±10%).
NGC 7771 (VV 2002) Pegasus Apparent: 12.9 Right Ascension: 23h 51m 25.0s; Declination: +20° 06’ 49” NASA APOD: NGC 7771
a large spiral galaxy in close proximity to two other galaxies. This trio of galaxies is named the NGC 7771 group after its largest member, a spiral, the three galaxies, NGC 7769-7771, have passed by each other closely and will eventually form one huge galaxy. It is considered an accurate representation of the formation of the Milky Way. Dusty nebulae in front of the group obstruct clear viewing.
NGC 2623 (Arp 243) Cancer Apparent: 13.9 Right Ascension: 08h 38m 24.1s; Declination: +25° 45’ 01” NASA APOD: NGC 2623 Hubble: NGC 2623
a system of two or more interacting galaxies. The galaxies have formed one common nucleus, but there are two strands of stars branching out from the galaxy, indicating a merger has taken place.
JKCS041 Chandra: JKCS041
Messier 77 (NGC 1068, UGC 2188, PGC 10266, Arp 37, 3C 71) Chandra: Messier 77 Universe Today: Messier 77
H2356-309 Chandra: H2356-309

Basic note sheet for the 2011 DSOs, intended for use when asked to quickly identify things, or for those new to the event. </spoiler> <spoiler text="2010 DSOs">

-**is part of a special viewing campaign this year and will be included up to at least 2011. </spoiler> <spoiler text="2009 DSOs">

-*is part of a special viewing campaign this year and will be included up to at least 2011. </spoiler>