Difference between revisions of "Endangered, Extinct, and Exotic Animals"

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(Wyoming Toad (Bufo baxteri))
(Mountain Yellow-legged Frog (Rana muscosa))
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===Mountain Yellow-legged Frog (''Rana muscosa'')===
 
===Mountain Yellow-legged Frog (''Rana muscosa'')===
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'''STATUS: ENDANGERED'''
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'''LISTED 1 JANUARY 2008'''
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The Mountain Yellow-legged frog is endemic to California, specifically the San Jacinto, San Bernardino, and San Gabriel Mountains. They can also be found in the Southern Sierra Nevada. Recently, some populations in the Southern Sierra Nevada have been reclassified into ''R. sierrae''. The Mountain Yellow-legged frog is 4-8.9 centimeters long, yellow/brown/olive, and has black and brown markings. Occasionally its thighs are light orange/yellow. When handled, they emit an odor that is described as similar to garlic. The tadpoles are brown with some gold and black spots. It is a diurnal frog that lives within a few meters of a water source like a creek, usually in a sunny area. The call is short and rasps up at the end, and is mainly done underwater. Its diet consists of small invertebrates such as beetles and ants. The decline of the Mountain Yellow-legged frog is believed to be because of introduced trout that eat tadpoles, pesticides from agricultural areas, and the chytrid fungus. Current conservation efforts focus on captive breeding and chytrid fungus inoculation in captivity to increase immunity.
  
 
===Dusky Gopher Frog (''Rana sevosa'')===
 
===Dusky Gopher Frog (''Rana sevosa'')===

Revision as of 01:55, 4 August 2017

Endangered, Extinct, and Exotic Animals was a new trial event for both Division B and Division C in New York and Texas for the 2013 season, and is scheduled to be run as a trial event at the 2015 National Competition. Also known as Triple E or EEE, it tests competitors on their knowledge of endangered, extinct, and exotic animals. As well as identification, questions may be given on the causes and effects of changes in biodiversity and the effects the introduction of invasive species have on environments.

Contents

Event Overview

Competitors are expected to recognize all of the organisms on the official taxa list, which can be found on the second page of this document: [1]. Of these organisms, competitors are expected to know possible reasons as to why endangered and extinct animals reached their individual respective status, how introduced and invasive species were likely introduced to an area, and how their introduction could impact the area's biodiversity.

This event is given either in timed stations, as a test, or as a PowerPoint. Students are given either pictures or information for identification purposes and then asked questions about the specific organisms. Twenty 3”x5” index cards, with no published information or photographs, held together by a single ring, are the only materials allowed.

New York Version

For New York, questions will be limited to the species on the official New York List, which can be found on the second and third pages of these documents: Division B-[2] Division C-[3]. Each team is allowed one secure three ring binder with any information (from any sources).

Texas Version

In Texas, questions will be limited to the species on the official Texas List, which can be found on the third and fourth page of this document: Division B-[4]. Twenty-five 3”x5” index cards, with no published information or photographs, held together by a single ring, are the only materials allowed.


NOTE: All following species are from the National list.

Fishes

Topeka Shiner (Notropis topeka)

STATUS: ENDANGERED

LISTED 15 DECEMBER 1998

The Topeka Shiner is a small minnow that lives in the prairie streams of the central United States. It is a shiny silver color and has a characteristic black colored stripe running along the side of its body. The states it lives in include Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, and South Dakota. The prairie streams it lives in are typically slow moving, have good water quality, and have a cool to moderate temperature. Instead of building their own nests, Topeka shiners share nests with orange-spotted or green sunfish. The main threat to these fish is changes to the water in which they live. Any activity, such as building projects, that increases silt is dangerous to the fish, as their food source and eggs can be buried.

Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus)

STATUS: ENDANGERED

LISTED 6 SEPTEMBER 1990

The pallid sturgeon has a flattened snout, long tail, rows of bony plates, and grayish white back and sides, giving it a dinosaur-like appearance. They do not have teeth; instead, they suck up small fish and invertebrates from the river bottom. It can weigh up to 80 pounds and reach 6 feet in length. They live close to the bottoms of large, silty rivers such as the Missouri River, where they are now scarce. Males reach sexual maturity in 7-9 years, while females reach sexual maturity in 7-15 years. Pallid sturgeons are estimated to be able to live for up to 50 years. Reasons for their decline include channelizing of their river habitat, dams, and commercial fishing.

Paddlefish (Polyodon spathula)

STATUS: VULNERABLE

LISTED 30 APRIL 2004

Paddlefish are primitive fish that inhabit large, slow-moving, freshwater rivers such as the Mississippi River. They have been in North America since the Cretaceous Period (65 million years ago). Similarly to sharks, their skeleton is made of cartilage, not bone, and are characterized by a large, elongated rostrum. They are an average of 1.5 m long (4.9 ft), weigh up to 27 kg (60 lb), and can live at least 30 years. Paddlefish are filter feeders that mainly feed on plankton (planktivorous). The main reason of their decline is overfishing and habitat destruction, but they are also exploited for their eggs, which can be used to make caviar. Additionally, zebra mussel infestations can filter out all of the plankton, causing the fish to have a very limited diet.

Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnas thynnus)

STATUS: ENDANGERED

LISTED 18 FEBRUARY 2011

The Atlantic Bluefin Tuna is one of the largest species of tuna, weighing up to 1500 pounds, reaching 10 feet in length, and living up to 30 years. Their body can be described as a spindle shape, with a pointed snout. The belly, sides, and cheeks are silvery, while the dorsal side is a dark blue. Although it can contain high levels of mercury and PCBs, the bluefin is prized in sushi for its high oil content. One of its unique adaptations is called a "concurrent exchanger": a type of blood vessel that allows this fish to maintain a body temperature that is higher than the ocean's. This allows it to move quickly, and is one reason why it is an apex predator. Its diet consists of fish like herring and anchovy, and sometimes cephalopods. The main reason for the bluefin's decline is overfishing, because of the high price it can fetch, and oil spills such as the Deepwater Horizon spill.

Sharks (Questions are about shark species as a whole and do not test on specific species)

Sharks are a group of fish in the class Chondrichthyes characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, 5-7 gill slits, and pectoral fins not fused to the head. Most sharks, except those like the bull/river shark, live in seawater; the bull and river shark live in freshwater. They have dermal denticles (essentially small "teeth" on their skin) that prevent parasites and improve fluid dynamics. Sharks have teeth that are replaced throughout their lives. They have well developed senses of taste and smell. They are endangered mainly due to overfishing for commercial and recreational reasons, but are sometimes culled to "protect" humans.

Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua)

STATUS: VULNERABLE

LISTED 1 AUGUST 1998

The Atlantic cod is a greenish-brown fish with a light lateral line, a noticeable barbel, and 3 prominent dorsal and 2 prominent anal fins. They can live up to 25 years, becoming sexually mature around years 2-4. The Atlantic cod is an apex predator, feeding mainly on crustaceans and fish such as mackerel. Due to overfishing, the population of cod has collapsed. As a result of a lack of a predator, the cod's prey's populations have increased.

Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

STATUS: LEAST CONCERN

LISTED 1 AUGUST 1998

The Atlantic salmon, also known as black salmon, is the longest and heaviest fish of the genus Salmo. While living in freshwater, they have blue and red spots; as an adult, they are silvery-blue and have characteristic black spots above the lateral line. The young feed on invertebrates such as stoneflies; as adults, they feed on herring, shrimp, Arctic squid, and more. Although most Atlantic salmon travel to the ocean then travel back to freshwater to spawn (salmon run), there have been documented cases of freshwater-only Atlantic salmon. These fish were overfished for commercial and recreational purposes, but are beginning to re-establish populations.

Blue Marlin (Makaira nigricans)

STATUS: VULNERABLE

LISTED 15 SEPTEMBER 2010

The blue marlin (also known as Atlantic blue marlin) has a blue-black top with a silvery underside, and about 15 rows of pale stripes on each side. It is characterized by a long bill with many fine teeth which it uses to stab, stun, injure, and kill its prey. They weigh up to 350 pounds for males and 1810 pounds for females, and live up to 18 and 27 years respectively. Their diet consists of fish such as mackerel, tuna, and squid. Due to its high fat content, the blue marlin is prized in Japan for use in sashimi. However, it is often accidentally caught in tuna fishing. They are overfished not only for commercial reasons like sushi, but are also a popular game fish. The blue marlin was also featured in Ernest Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea.

Amphibians

Inyo Mountains Salamander (Batrachoseps campi)

STATUS: ENDANGERED

LISTED 30 APRIL 2004

The Inyo Mountains Salamander is endemic to California, in the Inyo Mountains, as its name suggests. They are a silvery-green color, have a broad headed, rounded snout, large eyes, and 16-18 costal grooves (the grooves between ribs where nerves and blood vessels are). They are about 1.3-2.4 inches in length. Unlike other California salamanders, the Inyo Mountains salamander has four toes on the front and hind feet (other species have 5). They do not breathe through lungs; rather, they respirate through their skin, meaning that they must live in damp areas, such as near springs or seepage areas. They have naso-labial grooves (slits between the nostrils and lip that assist in chemoreception). These salamanders lay their eggs on land, and the young hatch into terrestrial salamanders. They are nocturnal, consume mainly small invertebrates, and have the ability to detach their tails in case of emergency. They are endangered because of the limited and fragile habitat, which is also affected by mining operations, flooding, and cattle grazing.

Wyoming Toad (Bufo baxteri)

NOTE: This species is now classified as Anaxyrus baxteri, but the official Science Olympiad species list should be followed.

STATUS: EXTINCT IN THE WILD

LISTED 30 APRIL 2004

The Wyoming toad used to be found in the Laramie plains in Albany County, Wyoming. In the late 1970s, their population dropped significantly, and they now exist only in captivity and the Mortenson Lake National Wildlife Refuge. The Wyoming toad is dark green, brown, or gray, with small dark markings on its underside. The males have a dark throat, and the females are larger than the males. They hibernate from early October to early May. The Wyoming toad is active at night, but relies on prey movement to hunt, because of its poor eyesight. Wyoming toads have sensitive skin; as a result, they are easily infected by the chytrid fungus. Also, they do not readily adapt to rapid changes in climate or water. Current conservation efforts focus on captive breeding and the elimination of the chytrid fungus.

Mountain Yellow-legged Frog (Rana muscosa)

STATUS: ENDANGERED

LISTED 1 JANUARY 2008

The Mountain Yellow-legged frog is endemic to California, specifically the San Jacinto, San Bernardino, and San Gabriel Mountains. They can also be found in the Southern Sierra Nevada. Recently, some populations in the Southern Sierra Nevada have been reclassified into R. sierrae. The Mountain Yellow-legged frog is 4-8.9 centimeters long, yellow/brown/olive, and has black and brown markings. Occasionally its thighs are light orange/yellow. When handled, they emit an odor that is described as similar to garlic. The tadpoles are brown with some gold and black spots. It is a diurnal frog that lives within a few meters of a water source like a creek, usually in a sunny area. The call is short and rasps up at the end, and is mainly done underwater. Its diet consists of small invertebrates such as beetles and ants. The decline of the Mountain Yellow-legged frog is believed to be because of introduced trout that eat tadpoles, pesticides from agricultural areas, and the chytrid fungus. Current conservation efforts focus on captive breeding and chytrid fungus inoculation in captivity to increase immunity.

Dusky Gopher Frog (Rana sevosa)

Ramsey Canyon Leopard Frog (Rana subaquavocalis)

Macaya Burrowing Frog (Eleutherodactylus parapelates)

Panamanian Golden Frog (Atelopus zeteki)

Puerto Rican Crested Toad (Peltophryne lemur)

Japanese Giant Salamander (Andrias japonicas)

Table Mountain Ghost Frog (Heleophryne rosei)

Reptiles

Sea Turtle (Questions are about sea turtle species as a whole and do not test on individual species)

Jamaican Boa (Epicrates subflavus)

Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus)

American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)

Indigo Snake (Drymarchon melanurus)

Giant Madagascar Leaf-tailed Gecko (Uroplatus fimbriatus)

Philipine Crocodile (Crocodilus mindorensis)

False Gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii)

Ploughshare Tortoise (Astrochelys yniphora)

Panther Chameleon (Furcifer pardalis)

Giant Garter Snake (Thamnophis gigas)

Red River Soft Shell Turtle (Rafetus swinhoei)

Cuban Rock Iguana (Cyclura nublia)

Grand Caymen Iguana (Cyclura lewisi)

Aruba Island Rattlesnake (Crotalus unicolor)

King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah)

Mammals

Black-footed Ferret (Mustela nigripes)

Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus)

African Elephant (Loxodonta africana)

Grey Wolf (Canis lupus)

Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa)

Tiger (Students do not need to know subspecies)

Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla & G. beringei)

Orangutan (Pongo abelii & P. pygmaeus)

Greater Bamboo Lemur (Prolemur simus)

Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)

Little Brown Bat (Myotis spp.)

Birds

Whooping Crane (Grus americana)

Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus)

Least Tern (Sterna antillarum)

Eskimo Curlew (Numenius borealis)

Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator)

African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus)

Galapagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus)

Introduced and Invasive Species

Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis)

Cane Toad (Bufo marinus)

Burmese Python (Python molurus)

Nile Monitor (Varanus niloticus)

Spectacled Caiman (Caiman crocodiles)

Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa)

Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)

Lionfish (Pterois volitans)

Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

Common Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)

Laws and Regulations

Links

Trial Event Rules