Endangered, Extinct, and Exotic Animals

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Endangered, Extinct, and Exotic Animals was a new trial event for both Division B and Division C in New York and Texas for the 2013 season, and is scheduled to be run as a trial event at the 2015 National Competition. Also known as Triple E or EEE, it tests competitors on their knowledge of endangered, extinct, and exotic animals. As well as identification, questions may be given on the causes and effects of changes in biodiversity and the effects the introduction of invasive species have on environments.

Contents

Event Overview

Competitors are expected to recognize all of the organisms on the official taxa list, which can be found on the second page of this document: [1]. Of these organisms, competitors are expected to know possible reasons as to why endangered and extinct animals reached their individual respective status, how introduced and invasive species were likely introduced to an area, and how their introduction could impact the area's biodiversity.

This event is given either in timed stations, as a test, or as a PowerPoint. Students are given either pictures or information for identification purposes and then asked questions about the specific organisms. Twenty 3”x5” index cards, with no published information or photographs, held together by a single ring, are the only materials allowed.

New York Version

For New York, questions will be limited to the species on the official New York List, which can be found on the second and third pages of these documents: Division B-[2] Division C-[3]. Each team is allowed one secure three ring binder with any information (from any sources).

Texas Version

In Texas, questions will be limited to the species on the official Texas List, which can be found on the third and fourth page of this document: Division B-[4]. Twenty-five 3”x5” index cards, with no published information or photographs, held together by a single ring, are the only materials allowed.


NOTE: All following species are from the National list.

Fishes

Topeka Shiner (Notropis topeka)

STATUS: ENDANGERED

LISTED 15 DECEMBER 1998

The Topeka Shiner is a small minnow that lives in the prairie streams of the central United States. It is a shiny silver color and has a characteristic black colored stripe running along the side of its body. The states it lives in include Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, and South Dakota. The prairie streams it lives in are typically slow moving, have good water quality, and have a cool to moderate temperature. Instead of building their own nests, Topeka shiners share nests with orange-spotted or green sunfish. The main threat to these fish is changes to the water in which they live. Any activity, such as building projects, that increases silt is dangerous to the fish, as their food source and eggs can be buried.

Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus)

STATUS: ENDANGERED

LISTED 6 SEPTEMBER 1990

The pallid sturgeon has a flattened snout, long tail, rows of bony plates, and grayish white back and sides, giving it a dinosaur-like appearance. They do not have teeth; instead, they suck up small fish and invertebrates from the river bottom. It can weigh up to 80 pounds and reach 6 feet in length. They live close to the bottoms of large, silty rivers such as the Missouri River, where they are now scarce. Males reach sexual maturity in 7-9 years, while females reach sexual maturity in 7-15 years. Pallid sturgeons are estimated to be able to live for up to 50 years. Reasons for their decline include channelizing of their river habitat, dams, and commercial fishing.

Paddlefish (Polyodon spathula)

STATUS: VULNERABLE

LISTED 30 APRIL 2004

Paddlefish are primitive fish that inhabit large, slow-moving, freshwater rivers such as the Mississippi River. They have been in North America since the Cretaceous Period (65 million years ago). Similarly to sharks, their skeleton is made of cartilage, not bone, and are characterized by a large, elongated rostrum. They are an average of 1.5 m long (4.9 ft), weigh up to 27 kg (60 lb), and can live at least 30 years. Paddlefish are filter feeders that mainly feed on plankton (planktivorous). The main reason of their decline is overfishing and habitat destruction, but they are also exploited for their eggs, which can be used to make caviar. Additionally, zebra mussel infestations can filter out all of the plankton, causing the fish to have a very limited diet.

Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnas thynnus)

STATUS: ENDANGERED

LISTED 18 FEBRUARY 2011

The Atlantic Bluefin Tuna is one of the largest species of tuna, weighing up to 1500 pounds, reaching 10 feet in length, and living up to 30 years. Their body can be described as a spindle shape, with a pointed snout. The belly, sides, and cheeks are silvery, while the dorsal side is a dark blue. Although it can contain high levels of mercury and PCBs, the bluefin is prized in sushi for its high oil content. One of its unique adaptations is called a "concurrent exchanger": a type of blood vessel that allows this fish to maintain a body temperature that is higher than the ocean's. This allows it to move quickly, and is one reason why it is an apex predator. Its diet consists of fish like herring and anchovy, and sometimes cephalopods. The main reason for the bluefin's decline is overfishing, because of the high price it can fetch, and oil spills such as the Deepwater Horizon spill.

Sharks (Questions are about shark species as a whole and do not test on specific species)

Sharks are a group of fish in the class Chondrichthyes characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, 5-7 gill slits, and pectoral fins not fused to the head. Most sharks, except those like the bull/river shark, live in seawater; the bull and river shark live in freshwater. They have dermal denticles (essentially small "teeth" on their skin) that prevent parasites and improve fluid dynamics. Sharks have teeth that are replaced throughout their lives. They have well developed senses of taste and smell. They are endangered mainly due to overfishing for commercial and recreational reasons, but are sometimes culled to "protect" humans.

Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua)

STATUS: VULNERABLE

LISTED 1 AUGUST 1998

The Atlantic cod is a greenish-brown fish with a light lateral line, a noticeable barbel, and 3 prominent dorsal and 2 prominent anal fins. They can live up to 25 years, becoming sexually mature around years 2-4. The Atlantic cod is an apex predator, feeding mainly on crustaceans and fish such as mackerel. Due to overfishing, the population of cod has collapsed. As a result of a lack of a predator, the cod's prey's populations have increased.

Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

STATUS: LEAST CONCERN

LISTED 1 AUGUST 1998

The Atlantic salmon, also known as black salmon, is the longest and heaviest fish of the genus Salmo. While living in freshwater, they have blue and red spots; as an adult, they are silvery-blue and have characteristic black spots above the lateral line. The young feed on invertebrates such as stoneflies; as adults, they feed on herring, shrimp, Arctic squid, and more. Although most Atlantic salmon travel to the ocean then travel back to freshwater to spawn (salmon run), there have been documented cases of freshwater-only Atlantic salmon. These fish were overfished for commercial and recreational purposes, but are beginning to re-establish populations.

Blue Marlin (Makaira nigricans)

Amphibians

Inyo Mountains Salamander (Batrachoseps campi)

Wyoming Toad (Bufo baxteri)

Mountain Yellow-legged Frog (Rana muscosa)

Dusky Gopher Frog (Rana sevosa)

Ramsey Canyon Leopard Frog (Rana subaquavocalis)

Macaya Burrowing Frog (Eleutherodactylus parapelates)

Panamanian Golden Frog (Atelopus zeteki)

Puerto Rican Crested Toad (Peltophryne lemur)

Japanese Giant Salamander (Andrias japonicas)

Table Mountain Ghost Frog (Heleophryne rosei)

Reptiles

Sea Turtle (Questions are about sea turtle species as a whole and do not test on individual species)

Jamaican Boa (Epicrates subflavus)

Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus)

American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)

Indigo Snake (Drymarchon melanurus)

Giant Madagascar Leaf-tailed Gecko (Uroplatus fimbriatus)

Philipine Crocodile (Crocodilus mindorensis)

False Gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii)

Ploughshare Tortoise (Astrochelys yniphora)

Panther Chameleon (Furcifer pardalis)

Giant Garter Snake (Thamnophis gigas)

Red River Soft Shell Turtle (Rafetus swinhoei)

Cuban Rock Iguana (Cyclura nublia)

Grand Caymen Iguana (Cyclura lewisi)

Aruba Island Rattlesnake (Crotalus unicolor)

King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah)

Mammals

Black-footed Ferret (Mustela nigripes)

Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus)

African Elephant (Loxodonta africana)

Grey Wolf (Canis lupus)

Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa)

Tiger (Students do not need to know subspecies)

Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla & G. beringei)

Orangutan (Pongo abelii & P. pygmaeus)

Greater Bamboo Lemur (Prolemur simus)

Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)

Little Brown Bat (Myotis spp.)

Birds

Whooping Crane (Grus americana)

Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus)

Least Tern (Sterna antillarum)

Eskimo Curlew (Numenius borealis)

Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator)

African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus)

Galapagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus)

Introduced and Invasive Species

Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis)

Cane Toad (Bufo marinus)

Burmese Python (Python molurus)

Nile Monitor (Varanus niloticus)

Spectacled Caiman (Caiman crocodiles)

Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa)

Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)

Lionfish (Pterois volitans)

Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

Common Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)

Laws and Regulations

Links

Trial Event Rules